IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/finana/v91y2024ics1057521923005471.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Central bank digital currencies: A critical review

Author

Listed:
  • Dionysopoulos, Lambis
  • Marra, Miriam
  • Urquhart, Andrew

Abstract

This critical literature survey offers a comprehensive understanding of the key aspects and implications of central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) as a rapidly evolving area of academic and policy research. We review in depth the key discussion around motivations for the introduction of CBDCs and their design (looking at options of availability, provision, access, and supporting infrastructure). In addition, we review studies and arguments laid out on the implications that the introduction of CBDC may have for monetary policy and financial stability. Finally, we identify sub-areas of CBDC research that need further investigation in future research.

Suggested Citation

  • Dionysopoulos, Lambis & Marra, Miriam & Urquhart, Andrew, 2024. "Central bank digital currencies: A critical review," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:91:y:2024:i:c:s1057521923005471
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2023.103031
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1057521923005471
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.irfa.2023.103031?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Jonathan Chiu & Thorsten V Koeppl, 2019. "Blockchain-Based Settlement for Asset Trading," The Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 32(5), pages 1716-1753.
    2. Richard Simmons & Paolo Dini & Nigel Culkin & Giuseppe Littera, 2021. "Crisis and the Role of Money in the Real and Financial Economies—An Innovative Approach to Monetary Stimulus," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 14(3), pages 1-28, March.
    3. Chiu, Jonathan & Wong, Tsz-Nga, 2022. "Payments on digital platforms: Resiliency, interoperability and welfare," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    4. Jonathan Chiu & Mohammad Davoodalhosseini & Janet Hua Jiang & Yu Zhu, 2019. "Bank Market Power and Central Bank Digital Currency: Theory and Quantitative Assessment," Staff Working Papers 19-20, Bank of Canada.
    5. Armelius, Hanna & Claussen, Carl Andreas & Hull, Isaiah, 2021. "On the possibility of a cash-like CBDC," EconStor Preprints 231485, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    6. Michiel Bijlsma & Carin van der Cruijsen & Nicole Jonker & Jelmer Reijerink, 2021. "What triggers consumer adoption of CBDC?," Working Papers 709, DNB.
    7. Williamson, Stephen D., 2022. "Central bank digital currency and flight to safety," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    8. Benos, Evangelos & Garratt, Rodney & Gurrola-Perez, Pedro, 2017. "The economics of distributed ledger technology for securities settlement," Bank of England working papers 670, Bank of England.
    9. Charles I. Plosser, 2019. "A Limited Central Bank," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 31(4), pages 16-20, December.
    10. Schilling, Linda & Fernandez-Villaverde, Jesus & Uhlig, Harald, 2020. "Central Bank Digital Currency: When price and bank stability collide," MPRA Paper 113248, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 May 2022.
    11. Kenneth Rogoff, 2015. "Costs and Benefits to Phasing out Paper Currency," NBER Macroeconomics Annual, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(1), pages 445-456.
    12. Mr. John Kiff & Jihad Alwazir & Sonja Davidovic & Aquiles Farias & Mr. Ashraf Khan & Mr. Tanai Khiaonarong & Majid Malaika & Mr. Hunter K Monroe & Nobu Sugimoto & Hervé Tourpe & Peter Zhou, 2020. "A Survey of Research on Retail Central Bank Digital Currency," IMF Working Papers 2020/104, International Monetary Fund.
    13. Martin Chorzempa, 2021. "China, the United States, and central bank digital currencies: how important is it to be first?," China Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 102-115, January.
    14. Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde & Daniel Sanches & Linda Schilling & Harald Uhlig, 2021. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Banking For All?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 41, pages 225-242, July.
    15. Ruchir Agarwal & Miles Kimball, 2015. "Breaking Through the Zero Lower Bound," IMF Working Papers 2015/224, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Francesca Carapella & Jean Flemming, 2020. "Central Bank Digital Currency: A Literature Review," FEDS Notes 2020-11-09-1, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    17. Davoodalhosseini, Seyed Mohammadreza, 2022. "Central bank digital currency and monetary policy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    18. Brunnermeier, Markus K. & Niepelt, Dirk, 2019. "On the equivalence of private and public money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 27-41.
    19. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-954, August.
    20. Charles M. Kahn & Francisco Rivadeneyra & Tsz-Nga Wong, 2018. "Should the Central Bank Issue E-money?," Staff Working Papers 18-58, Bank of Canada.
    21. Ferrari Minesso, Massimo & Mehl, Arnaud & Stracca, Livio, 2022. "Central bank digital currency in an open economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 54-68.
    22. Klein, Tony & Pham Thu, Hien & Walther, Thomas, 2018. "Bitcoin is not the New Gold – A comparison of volatility, correlation, and portfolio performance," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 105-116.
    23. Simmons, Richard & Dini, Paolo & Culkin, Nigel & Littera, Giuseppe, 2021. "Crisis and the role of money in the real and financial economies: an innovative approach to monetary stimulus," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 110904, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    24. Burlon, Lorenzo & Montes-Galdón, Carlos & Muñoz, Manuel A. & Smets, Frank, 2022. "The optimal quantity of CBDC in a bank-based economy," Working Paper Series 2689, European Central Bank.
    25. Kahn, Charles M. & Roberds, William, 2009. "Why pay? An introduction to payments economics," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-23, January.
    26. Todd Keister & Daniel Sanches, 2023. "Should Central Banks Issue Digital Currency?," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 90(1), pages 404-431.
    27. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Harold James & Jean-Pierre Landau, 2019. "The Digitalization of Money," Working Papers 2019-13, Princeton University. Economics Department..
    28. Budish, Eric B., 2018. "The Economic Limits of Bitcoin and the Blockchain," Working Papers 279, The University of Chicago Booth School of Business, George J. Stigler Center for the Study of the Economy and the State.
    29. Hoang, Yen Hai & Ngo, Vu Minh & Bich Vu, Ngoc, 2023. "Central bank digital currency: A systematic literature review using text mining approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    30. David Andolfatto, 2021. "Assessing the Impact of Central Bank Digital Currency on Private Banks," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 131(634), pages 525-540.
    31. Klein, Tony & Hien, Pham Thu & Walther, Thomas, 2018. "Bitcoin Is Not the New Gold: A Comparison of Volatility, Correlation, and Portfolio Performance," QBS Working Paper Series 2018/01, Queen's University Belfast, Queen's Business School.
    32. Rodney J. Garratt & Maarten R. C. van Oordt, 2021. "Privacy as a Public Good: A Case for Electronic Cash," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 129(7), pages 2157-2180.
    33. Mr. Dong He & Mr. Ross B Leckow & Mr. V. Haksar & Mr. Tommaso Mancini-Griffoli & Nigel Jenkinson & Ms. Mikari Kashima & Mr. Tanai Khiaonarong & Ms. Celine Rochon & Hervé Tourpe, 2017. "Fintech and Financial Services: Initial Considerations," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 2017/005, International Monetary Fund.
    34. Charles M. Kahn & Francisco Rivadeneyra, 2020. "Security and convenience of a central bank digital currency," Staff Analytical Notes 2020-21, Bank of Canada.
    35. Young Sik Kim & Ohik Kwon, 2019. "Central Bank Digital Currency and Financial Stability," Working Papers 2019-6, Economic Research Institute, Bank of Korea.
    36. Antonio Diez de los Rios & Yu Zhu, 2020. "CBDC and Monetary Sovereignty," Staff Analytical Notes 2020-5, Bank of Canada.
    37. Michael D. Bordo & Andrew T. Levin, 2017. "Central Bank Digital Currency and the Future of Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 23711, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    38. Raphael Auer & Rainer Boehme, 2020. "The technology of retail central bank digital currency," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    39. Keister, Todd & Monnet, Cyril, 2022. "Central bank digital currency: Stability and information," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    40. Monnet, Eric & , & Ungaro, Stefano, 2021. "The Real Effects of Bank Runs. Evidence from the French Great Depression (1930-1931)," CEPR Discussion Papers 16054, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    41. Walter Engert & Ben Fung, 2017. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Motivations and Implications," Discussion Papers 17-16, Bank of Canada.
    42. Morten Linnemann Bech & Rodney Garratt, 2017. "Central bank cryptocurrencies," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, September.
    43. Meaning, Jack & Dyson, Ben & Barker, James & Clayton, Emily, 2018. "Broadening narrow money: monetary policy with a central bank digital currency," Bank of England working papers 724, Bank of England.
    44. Chiu, Jonathan & Koeppl, Thorsten V, 2017. "The economics of cryptocurrencies – bitcoin and beyond," Working Paper Series 6688, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Economics and Finance.
    45. Ahnert, Toni & Assenmacher, Katrin & Hoffmann, Peter & Leonello, Agnese & Monnet, Cyril & Porcellacchia, Davide, 2022. "The economics of central bank digital currency," CEPR Discussion Papers 17617, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    46. Raphael A. Auer & Giulio Cornelli & Jon Frost, 2020. "Rise of the Central Bank Digital Currencies: Drivers, Approaches and Technologies," CESifo Working Paper Series 8655, CESifo.
    47. Ingham, Geoffrey, 2004. "The nature of money," economic sociology. perspectives and conversations, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, vol. 5(2), pages 18-28.
    48. Barrdear, John & Kumhof, Michael, 2022. "The macroeconomics of central bank digital currencies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    49. Jonathan Chiu & Thorsten V. Koeppl, 2017. "The Economics Of Cryptocurrencies - Bitcoin And Beyond," Working Paper 1389, Economics Department, Queen's University.
    50. Nicole Jonker, 2018. "What drives bitcoin adoption by retailers," DNB Working Papers 585, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    51. Eric Budish, 2018. "The Economic Limits of Bitcoin and the Blockchain," NBER Working Papers 24717, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    52. Katrin Assenmacher & Signe Krogstrup, 2018. "Monetary Policy with Negative Interest Rates: Decoupling Cash from Electronic Money," IMF Working Papers 2018/191, International Monetary Fund.
    53. Chiu, Jonathan & Koeppl, Thorsten V, 2017. "The economics of cryptocurrencies – bitcoin and beyond," Working Paper Series 20278, Victoria University of Wellington, School of Economics and Finance.
    54. Bindseil, Ulrich & Panetta, Fabio & Terol, Ignacio, 2021. "Central Bank Digital Currency: functional scope, pricing and controls," Occasional Paper Series 286, European Central Bank.
    55. Bindseil, Ulrich, 2020. "Tiered CBDC and the financial system," Working Paper Series 2351, European Central Bank.
    56. Barrdear, John & Kumhof, Michael, 2016. "The macroeconomics of central bank issued digital currencies," Bank of England working papers 605, Bank of England.
    57. Mohammad Davoodalhosseini & Francisco Rivadeneyra & Yu Zhu, 2020. "CBDC and Monetary Policy," Staff Analytical Notes 2020-4, Bank of Canada.
    58. Cyril Monnet & Hyun Song Shin & Jon Frost & Leonardo Gambacorta & Raphael Auer & Tara Rice, 2022. "Central Bank Digital Currencies: Motives, Economic Implications, and the Research Frontier," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 14(1), pages 697-721, August.
    59. Stephen Williamson, 2022. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Welfare and Policy Implications," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 130(11), pages 2829-2861.
    60. Mr. Tommaso Mancini-Griffoli & Mr. Maria Soledad Martinez Peria & Mr. Itai Agur & Mr. Anil Ari & Mr. John Kiff & Ms. Adina Popescu & Ms. Celine Rochon, 2018. "Casting Light on Central Bank Digital Currencies," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 2018/008, International Monetary Fund.
    61. Foster, Kevin & Greene, Claire, 2021. "Consumer behaviour in a health crisis: What happened to cash?," Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, Henry Stewart Publications, vol. 15(2), pages 188-196, June.
    62. Tommaso Mancini Griffoli & Maria Soledad Martinez Peria & Itai Agur & Anil Ari & John Kiff & Adina Popescu & Celine Rochon, 2018. "Casting Light on Central Bank Digital Currencies," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 18/08, International Monetary Fund.
    63. Novi Maryaningsih & Suahasil Nazara & Febrio N. Kacaribu & Solikin M. Juhro, 2022. "Central Bank Digital Currency: What Factors Determine Its Adoption?," Bulletin of Monetary Economics and Banking, Bank Indonesia, vol. 25(1), pages 1-24, June.
    64. Ben Fung & Hanna Halaburda, 2016. "Central Bank Digital Currencies: A Framework for Assessing Why and How," Discussion Papers 16-22, Bank of Canada.
    65. Dong He & Ross B Leckow & Vikram Haksar & Tommaso Mancini Griffoli & Nigel Jenkinson & Mikari Kashima & Tanai Khiaonarong & Celine Rochon & Hervé Tourpe, 2017. "Fintech and Financial Services; Initial Considerations," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 17/05, International Monetary Fund.
    66. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1993. "A Search-Theoretic Approach to Monetary Economics," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 63-77, March.
    67. Adachi, Mitsu & Da Silva, Pedro Bento Pereira & Born, Alexandra & Cappuccio, Massimo & Czák-Ludwig, Stephanie & Gschossmann, Isabella & Pellicani, Antonella & Philipps, Sarah-Maria & Plooij, Mirjam & , 2022. "Stablecoins’ role in crypto and beyond: functions, risks and policy," Macroprudential Bulletin, European Central Bank, vol. 18.
    68. Ruttenberg, Wiebe & Pinna, Andrea, 2016. "Distributed ledger technologies in securities post-trading - Revolution or evolution?," Occasional Paper Series 172, European Central Bank.
    69. Bofinger, Peter & Haas, Thomas, 2020. "CBDC: Can central banks succeed in the marketplace for digital monies?," CEPR Discussion Papers 15489, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    70. Christopher Henry & Kim Huynh & Angelika Welte, 2018. "2017 Methods-of-Payment Survey Report," Discussion Papers 18-17, Bank of Canada.
    71. Kumhof, Michael & Noone, Clare, 2021. "Central bank digital currencies — Design principles for financial stability," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 553-572.
    72. Wouter Bossu & Mr. Masaru Itatani & Arthur D. P. Rossi, 2020. "Legal Aspects of Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Bank and Monetary Law Considerations," IMF Working Papers 2020/254, International Monetary Fund.
    73. Max Raskin & David Yermack, 2016. "Digital Currencies, Decentralized Ledgers, and the Future of Central Banking," NBER Working Papers 22238, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Agur, Itai & Ari, Anil & Dell’Ariccia, Giovanni, 2022. "Designing central bank digital currencies," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 62-79.
    2. Marcelo A. T. Aragão, 2021. "A Few Things You Wanted to Know about the Economics of CBDCs, but were Afraid to Model: a survey of what we can learn from who has done," Working Papers Series 554, Central Bank of Brazil, Research Department.
    3. Li, Jiaqi, 2023. "Predicting the demand for central bank digital currency: A structural analysis with survey data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 134(C), pages 73-85.
    4. Cyril Monnet & Hyun Song Shin & Jon Frost & Leonardo Gambacorta & Raphael Auer & Tara Rice, 2022. "Central Bank Digital Currencies: Motives, Economic Implications, and the Research Frontier," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 14(1), pages 697-721, August.
    5. Alexandra Mitschke, 2021. "Central Bank Digital Currencies and Monetary Policy Effectiveness in the Euro Area," Working Papers Dissertations 74, Paderborn University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
    6. Rehman, Mubeen Abdur & Irfan, Muhammad & Naeem, Muhammad Abubakr & Lucey, Brian M. & Karim, Sitara, 2023. "Macro-financial implications of central bank digital currencies," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    7. Grodecka-Messi, Anna & Zhang, Xin, 2023. "Private bank money vs central bank money: A historical lesson for CBDC introduction," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 154(C).
    8. Luu, Hiep Ngoc & Nguyen, Canh Phuc & Nasir, Muhammad Ali, 2023. "Implications of central bank digital currency for financial stability: Evidence from the global banking sector," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
    9. Nocciola, Luca & Zamora-Pérez, Alejandro, 2024. "Transactional demand for central bank digital currency," Working Paper Series 2926, European Central Bank.
    10. Thitima Chucherd & Chanokkarn Mek-yong & Nalin Nookhwun & Passawuth Nuntnarumit & Natta Piyakarnchana & Suparit Suwanik, 2021. "Monetary and Financial Perspectives on Retail CBDC in the Thai Context," PIER Discussion Papers 152, Puey Ungphakorn Institute for Economic Research.
    11. Cong, Lin William & Mayer, Simon, 2022. "The Coming Battle of Digital Currencies," Applied Economics and Policy Working Paper Series 320020, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    12. Tercero-Lucas, David, 2023. "Central bank digital currencies and financial stability in a modern monetary system," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    13. Davoodalhosseini, Seyed Mohammadreza, 2022. "Central bank digital currency and monetary policy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    14. Magin, Jana Anjali & Neyer, Ulrike & Stempel, Daniel, 2023. "The macroeconomic effects of different CBDC regimes in an economy with a heterogeneous household sector," DICE Discussion Papers 396, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    15. Lim, King Yoong & Liu, Chunping & Zhang, Shuonan, 2024. "Optimal central banking policies: Envisioning the post-digital yuan economy with loan prime rate-setting," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
    16. Hoang, Yen Hai & Ngo, Vu Minh & Bich Vu, Ngoc, 2023. "Central bank digital currency: A systematic literature review using text mining approach," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    17. Schilling, Linda & Fernandez-Villaverde, Jesus & Uhlig, Harald, 2020. "Central Bank Digital Currency: When price and bank stability collide," MPRA Paper 113248, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 May 2022.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:91:y:2024:i:c:s1057521923005471. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620166 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.