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On the Equivalence of Private and Public Money

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  • Brunnermeier, Markus K
  • Niepelt, Dirk

Abstract

We develop a generic model of money and liquidity that identites sources of liquidity bubbles and seignorage rents. We provide sufficient conditions under which a swap of monies leaves the equilibrium allocation and price system unchanged. We apply the equivalence result to the "Chicago Plan," cryptocurrencies, the Indian de-monetization experiment, and Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC). In particular, we show why CBDC need not undermine financial stability.

Suggested Citation

  • Brunnermeier, Markus K & Niepelt, Dirk, 2019. "On the Equivalence of Private and Public Money," CEPR Discussion Papers 13778, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:13778
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    Cited by:

    1. Auer, Raphael & Cornelli, Giulio & Frost, Jon, 2020. "Rise of the central bank digital currencies: drivers, approaches and technologies," CEPR Discussion Papers 15363, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde & Daniel Sanches & Linda Schilling & Harald Uhlig, . "Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Banking For All?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics.
    3. Dirk Niepelt, 2020. "Monetary Policy with Reserves and CBDC: Optimality, Equivalence, and Politics," Working Papers 20.05, Swiss National Bank, Study Center Gerzensee.
    4. Force, ECB Crypto Assets Task, 2020. "Stablecoins: Implications for monetary policy, financial stability, market infrastructure and payments, and banking supervision in the euro area," Occasional Paper Series 247, European Central Bank.
    5. Raphael Auer & Rainer Boehme, 2020. "The technology of retail central bank digital currency," BIS Quarterly Review, Bank for International Settlements, March.
    6. Franklin Allen & Julapa Jagtiani, 2020. "A Survey of Fintech Research and Policy Discussion," Working Papers 20-21, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    7. Xiaofan Li & Andrew B. Whinston, 2020. "Analyzing Cryptocurrencies," Information Systems Frontiers, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 17-22, February.
    8. Christian Wipf, 2020. "Should Banks Create Money?," Diskussionsschriften dp2015, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    9. Alexis Derviz, 2019. "Coexistence of Physical and Crypto Assets in a Stochastic Endogenous Growth Model," Working Papers 2019/7, Czech National Bank.
    10. David Chaum & Christian Grothoff & Thomas Moser, 2021. "How to issue a central bank digital currency," Working Papers 2021-03, Swiss National Bank.
    11. Harald Uhlig & Taojun Xie, 2020. "Parallel Digital Currencies and Sticky Prices," Working Papers 2020-188, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
    12. Mohammad Davoodalhosseini & Francisco Rivadeneyra & Yu Zhu, 2020. "CBDC and Monetary Policy," Staff Analytical Notes 2020-4, Bank of Canada.
    13. Jia, Pengfei, 2020. "Negative Interest Rates on Central Bank Digital Currency," MPRA Paper 103828, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Jia, Pengfei, 2021. "Trust Shocks, Financial Crises, and Money," MPRA Paper 106343, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Ferrari, Massimo & Mehl, Arnaud & Stracca, Livio, 2020. "Central bank digital currency in an open economy," CEPR Discussion Papers 15335, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Paul Pichler & Martin Summer & Beat Weber, 2020. "Does digitalization require Central Bank Digital Currencies for the general public?," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue Q4/19, pages 40-56.
    17. David Chaum & Christian Grothoff & Thomas Moser, 2021. "How to Issue a Central Bank Digital Currency," Papers 2103.00254, arXiv.org.
    18. Aiste Juskaite & Sigitas Siaudinis & Tomas Reichenbachas, 2019. "CBDC – in a whirlpool of discussion," Bank of Lithuania Occasional Paper Series 29, Bank of Lithuania.
    19. Daniel R. Sanches, 2020. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Is It a Good Idea?," Economic Insights, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, vol. 5(2), pages 9-15, June.
    20. Edoardo Rainone, 2021. "Identifying deposits' outflows in real-time," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1319, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    21. Benigno, Pierpaolo & Robatto, Roberto, 2019. "Private money creation, liquidity crises, and government interventions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C), pages 42-58.
    22. Michael Peneder, 2021. "Digitization and the Evolution of Money as a Social Technology of Account," WIFO Working Papers 620, WIFO.
    23. Jonathan Chiu & Mohammad Davoodalhosseini & Janet Hua Jiang & Yu Zhu, 2020. "Safe Payments," Staff Working Papers 20-53, Bank of Canada.
    24. Goodhart, C. A. E. & Masciandaro, Donato & Ugolini, Stefano, 2021. "Pandemic recession, helicopter money and central banking: Venice, 1630," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 108555, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    25. Ohik Kwon & Seungduck Lee & Jaevin Park, 2020. "Central Bank Digital Currency, Tax Evasion, Inflation Tax, and Central Bank Independence," Working Papers 2020-26, Economic Research Institute, Bank of Korea.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    CBDC; Chicago Plan; equivalence; Inside money; monetary system; money creation; outside money; sovereign money;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E40 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - General
    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

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