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Monetary Policy with Reserves and CBDC: Optimality, Equivalence, and Politics

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  • Dirk Niepelt

Abstract

We analyze policy in a two-tiered monetary system. Noncompetitive banks issue deposits while the central bank issues reserves and a retail CBDC. Monies differ with respect to operating costs and liquidity. We map the framework into a baseline business cycle model with “pseudo wedges” and derive optimal policy rules: Spreads satisfy modified Friedman rules and deposits must be taxed or subsidized. We generalize the Brunnermeier and Niepelt (2019) result on the macro irrelevance of CBDC but show that a deposit based payment system requires higher taxes. The model implies annual implicit subsidies to U.S. banks of up to 0:8 percent of GDP during the period 1999-2017.

Suggested Citation

  • Dirk Niepelt, 2020. "Monetary Policy with Reserves and CBDC: Optimality, Equivalence, and Politics," CESifo Working Paper Series 8712, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_8712
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    Cited by:

    1. Raphael Auer & Rainer Boehme, 2021. "Central bank digital currency: the quest for minimally invasive technology," BIS Working Papers 948, Bank for International Settlements.
    2. Gianluca Benigno & Pierpaolo Benigno, 2022. "Managing Monetary Policy Normalization," Staff Reports 1015, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    3. Simone Auer & Nicola Branzoli & Giuseppe Ferrero & Antonio Ilari & Francesco Palazzo & Edoardo Rainone, 2024. "CBDC and the banking system," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 829, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    4. Jesus Fernandez-Villaverde & Daniel Sanches & Linda Schilling & Harald Uhlig, 2021. "Central Bank Digital Currency: Central Banking For All?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 41, pages 225-242, July.
    5. Ahnert, Toni & Assenmacher, Katrin & Hoffmann, Peter & Leonello, Agnese & Monnet, Cyril & Porcellacchia, Davide, 2022. "The economics of central bank digital currency," Working Paper Series 2713, European Central Bank.
    6. Cyril Monnet & Hyun Song Shin & Jon Frost & Leonardo Gambacorta & Raphael Auer & Tara Rice, 2022. "Central Bank Digital Currencies: Motives, Economic Implications, and the Research Frontier," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 14(1), pages 697-721, August.
    7. Todd Keister & Daniel Sanches, 2023. "Should Central Banks Issue Digital Currency?," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 90(1), pages 404-431.
    8. Schilling, Linda & Fernandez-Villaverde, Jesus & Uhlig, Harald, 2020. "Central Bank Digital Currency: When price and bank stability collide," MPRA Paper 113248, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 May 2022.
    9. Schiller, Jonathan & Gross, Jonas, 2021. "A Model for Central Bank Digital Currencies: Implications for Bank Funding and Monetary Policy," VfS Annual Conference 2021 (Virtual Conference): Climate Economics 242350, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    10. Moro, Alessandro & Nispi Landi, Valerio, 2024. "The external financial spillovers of CBDCs," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 159(C).
    11. Eun Young Oh & Shuonan Zhang, 2022. "Informal economy and central bank digital currency," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 60(4), pages 1520-1539, October.
    12. Burlon, Lorenzo & Montes-Galdón, Carlos & Muñoz, Manuel A. & Smets, Frank, 2022. "The optimal quantity of CBDC in a bank-based economy," Working Paper Series 2689, European Central Bank.
    13. Gianluca Benigno & Pierpaolo Benigno, 2021. "Interest, Reserves, and Prices," Staff Reports 971, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    14. Davoodalhosseini, Seyed Mohammadreza, 2022. "Central bank digital currency and monetary policy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 142(C).
    15. Karau, Sören, 2023. "Central bank digital currency competition and the impossible trinity," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 54(C).
    16. Assenmacher, Katrin & Bitter, Lea & Ristiniemi, Annukka, 2023. "CBDC and business cycle dynamics in a New Monetarist New Keynesian model," Working Paper Series 2811, European Central Bank.
    17. Assenmacher, Katrin & Berentsen, Aleksander & Brand, Claus & Lamersdorf, Nora, 2021. "A unified framework for CBDC design: remuneration, collateral haircuts and quantity constraints," Working Paper Series 2578, European Central Bank.
    18. Jonathan Chiu & Mohammad Davoodalhosseini, 2021. "Central Bank Digital Currency and Banking: Macroeconomic Benefits of a Cash-Like Design," Staff Working Papers 21-63, Bank of Canada.
    19. Sebastian Infante & Kyungmin Kim & Anna Orlik & André F. Silva & Robert J. Tetlow, 2022. "The Macroeconomic Implications of CBDC: A Review of the Literature," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2022-076, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    reserves; deposits; central bank digital currency; monetary policy; Friedman rule; equivalence; Ramsey policy; bank profits; money creation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E42 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Monetary Sytsems; Standards; Regimes; Government and the Monetary System
    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy

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