Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies
This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Allan, Grant & Gilmartin, Michelle & McGregor, Peter & Swales, Kim, 2011. "Levelised costs of Wave and Tidal energy in the UK: Cost competitiveness and the importance of "banded" Renewables Obligation Certificates," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 23-39, January.
- Mondol, Jayanta Deb & Yohanis, Yigzaw G & Norton, Brian, 2009. "Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(7-8), pages 985-999, July.
- de Alegría, Iñigo Martínez & Martín, Jose Luis & Kortabarria, Iñigo & Andreu, Jon & Ereño, Pedro Ibañez, 2009. "Transmission alternatives for offshore electrical power," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 1027-1038, June.
- Zhou, Wei & Lou, Chengzhi & Li, Zhongshi & Lu, Lin & Yang, Hongxing, 2010. "Current status of research on optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid solar-wind power generation systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 380-389, February.
- Ekren, Orhan & Ekren, Banu Y., 2010. "Size optimization of a PV/wind hybrid energy conversion system with battery storage using simulated annealing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 592-598, February.
- DeCarolis, Joseph F. & Keith, David W., 2005. "The Costs of Wind's Variability: Is There a Threshold?," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 69-77.
- Stadler, Ingo, 2008. "Power grid balancing of energy systems with high renewable energy penetration by demand response," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 90-98, June.
- Swider, Derk J. & Beurskens, Luuk & Davidson, Sarah & Twidell, John & Pyrko, Jurek & Prüggler, Wolfgang & Auer, Hans & Vertin, Katarina & Skema, Romualdas, 2008. "Conditions and costs for renewables electricity grid connection: Examples in Europe," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1832-1842.
- Sun, Yongling & Ogden, J & Delucchi, Mark, 2010. "Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt2fm762sz, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
- Stoutenburg, Eric D. & Jenkins, Nicholas & Jacobson, Mark Z., 2010. "Power output variations of co-located offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters in California," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 2781-2791.
- Benitez, Liliana E. & Benitez, Pablo C. & van Kooten, G. Cornelis, 2008.
"The economics of wind power with energy storage,"
Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1973-1989, July.
- Pablo Benitez & Lilianna Dragulescu & G. Cornelis van Kooten, 2006. "The Economics of Wind Power with Energy Storage," Working Papers 2006-02, University of Victoria, Department of Economics, Resource Economics and Policy Analysis Research Group.
- Krewitt, Wolfram, 2002. "External costs of energy--do the answers match the questions?: Looking back at 10 years of ExternE," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(10), pages 839-848, August.
- Lund, Henrik & Kempton, Willett, 2008. "Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3578-3587, September.
- Greenblatt, Jeffery B. & Succar, Samir & Denkenberger, David C. & Williams, Robert H. & Socolow, Robert H., 2007. "Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1474-1492, March.
- DeCesaro, Jennifer & Porter, Kevin & Milligan, Michael, 2009. "Wind Energy and Power System Operations: A Review of Wind Integration Studies to Date," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(10), pages 34-43, December.
- Andersson, S.-L. & Elofsson, A.K. & Galus, M.D. & Göransson, L. & Karlsson, S. & Johnsson, F. & Andersson, G., 2010. "Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers: Case studies of Sweden and Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 2751-2762, June.
- Boccard, Nicolas, 2009. "Capacity factor of wind power realized values vs. estimates," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2679-2688, July.
- Denny, Eleanor, 2009. "The economics of tidal energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1914-1924, May.
- Hellgren, Jonas, 2007. "Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 39-49, January.
- Dusonchet, Luigi & Telaretti, Enrico, 2010. "Economic analysis of different supporting policies for the production of electrical energy by solar photovoltaics in western European Union countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3297-3308, July.
- Katzenstein, Warren & Fertig, Emily & Apt, Jay, 2010. "The variability of interconnected wind plants," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4400-4410, August.
- Berry, David, 2009. "Innovation and the price of wind energy in the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4493-4499, November.
- Ahman, Max, 2006. "Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 433-443, March.
- Offer, G.J. & Howey, D. & Contestabile, M. & Clague, R. & Brandon, N.P., 2010. "Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 24-29, January.
- Denholm, Paul & Sioshansi, Ramteen, 2009. "The value of compressed air energy storage with wind in transmission-constrained electric power systems," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3149-3158, August.
- Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2009. "Rejecting renewables: The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4500-4513, November.
- Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Watts, Charmaine, 2009. "Going Completely Renewable: Is It Possible (Let Alone Desirable)?," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 95-111, May.
- Wilson, Ian Allan Grant & McGregor, Peter G. & Hall, Peter J., 2010. "Energy storage in the UK electrical network: Estimation of the scale and review of technology options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4099-4106, August.
- Colin J. Cockroft & Anthony D. Owen, 2007. "The Economics of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(263), pages 359-370, December.
- Cavallo, Alfred, 2007. "Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 120-127.
- Schilling, Melissa A. & Esmundo, Melissa, 2009. "Technology S-curves in renewable energy alternatives: Analysis and implications for industry and government," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1767-1781, May.
- Boccard, Nicolas, 2010. "Economic properties of wind power: A European assessment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3232-3244, July.
- Lund, H., 2006. "Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 503-515.
- Amjad, Shaik & Neelakrishnan, S. & Rudramoorthy, R., 2010. "Review of design considerations and technological challenges for successful development and deployment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 1104-1110, April.
- DeCarolis, Joseph F. & Keith, David W., 2006. "The economics of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 395-410, March.
- Delucchi, Mark & Lipman, Timothy, 2001. "An Analysis of the Retail and Lifecycle Cost of Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt50q9060k, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:3:p:1170-1190. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.