IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/enepol/v39y2011i3p1170-1190.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies

Author

Listed:
  • Delucchi, Mark A.
  • Jacobson, Mark Z.

Abstract

This is Part II of two papers evaluating the feasibility of providing all energy for all purposes (electric power, transportation, and heating/cooling), everywhere in the world, from wind, water, and the sun (WWS). In Part I, we described the prominent renewable energy plans that have been proposed and discussed the characteristics of WWS energy systems, the global demand for and availability of WWS energy, quantities and areas required for WWS infrastructure, and supplies of critical materials. Here, we discuss methods of addressing the variability of WWS energy to ensure that power supply reliably matches demand (including interconnecting geographically dispersed resources, using hydroelectricity, using demand-response management, storing electric power on site, over-sizing peak generation capacity and producing hydrogen with the excess, storing electric power in vehicle batteries, and forecasting weather to project energy supplies), the economics of WWS generation and transmission, the economics of WWS use in transportation, and policy measures needed to enhance the viability of a WWS system. We find that the cost of energy in a 100% WWS will be similar to the cost today. We conclude that barriers to a 100% conversion to WWS power worldwide are primarily social and political, not technological or even economic.

Suggested Citation

  • Delucchi, Mark A. & Jacobson, Mark Z., 2011. "Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1170-1190, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:3:p:1170-1190
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301-4215(10)00869-4
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Zhou, Wei & Lou, Chengzhi & Li, Zhongshi & Lu, Lin & Yang, Hongxing, 2010. "Current status of research on optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid solar-wind power generation systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 380-389, February.
    2. Stadler, Ingo, 2008. "Power grid balancing of energy systems with high renewable energy penetration by demand response," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 90-98, June.
    3. Sun, Yongling & Ogden, J & Delucchi, Mark, 2010. "Societal lifetime cost of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt2fm762sz, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    4. Benitez, Liliana E. & Benitez, Pablo C. & van Kooten, G. Cornelis, 2008. "The economics of wind power with energy storage," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 1973-1989, July.
    5. Krewitt, Wolfram, 2002. "External costs of energy--do the answers match the questions?: Looking back at 10 years of ExternE," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(10), pages 839-848, August.
    6. Lund, Henrik & Kempton, Willett, 2008. "Integration of renewable energy into the transport and electricity sectors through V2G," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3578-3587, September.
    7. DeCesaro, Jennifer & Porter, Kevin & Milligan, Michael, 2009. "Wind Energy and Power System Operations: A Review of Wind Integration Studies to Date," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(10), pages 34-43, December.
    8. Andersson, S.-L. & Elofsson, A.K. & Galus, M.D. & Göransson, L. & Karlsson, S. & Johnsson, F. & Andersson, G., 2010. "Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as regulating power providers: Case studies of Sweden and Germany," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 2751-2762, June.
    9. Boccard, Nicolas, 2009. "Capacity factor of wind power realized values vs. estimates," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2679-2688, July.
    10. Katzenstein, Warren & Fertig, Emily & Apt, Jay, 2010. "The variability of interconnected wind plants," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4400-4410, August.
    11. Offer, G.J. & Howey, D. & Contestabile, M. & Clague, R. & Brandon, N.P., 2010. "Comparative analysis of battery electric, hydrogen fuel cell and hybrid vehicles in a future sustainable road transport system," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 24-29, January.
    12. Denholm, Paul & Sioshansi, Ramteen, 2009. "The value of compressed air energy storage with wind in transmission-constrained electric power systems," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3149-3158, August.
    13. Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2009. "Rejecting renewables: The socio-technical impediments to renewable electricity in the United States," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4500-4513, November.
    14. Colin J. Cockroft & Anthony D. Owen, 2007. "The Economics of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(263), pages 359-370, December.
    15. Schilling, Melissa A. & Esmundo, Melissa, 2009. "Technology S-curves in renewable energy alternatives: Analysis and implications for industry and government," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1767-1781, May.
    16. Lund, H., 2006. "Large-scale integration of optimal combinations of PV, wind and wave power into the electricity supply," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 503-515.
    17. Amjad, Shaik & Neelakrishnan, S. & Rudramoorthy, R., 2010. "Review of design considerations and technological challenges for successful development and deployment of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 1104-1110, April.
    18. DeCarolis, Joseph F. & Keith, David W., 2006. "The economics of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 395-410, March.
    19. Allan, Grant & Gilmartin, Michelle & McGregor, Peter & Swales, Kim, 2011. "Levelised costs of Wave and Tidal energy in the UK: Cost competitiveness and the importance of "banded" Renewables Obligation Certificates," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 23-39, January.
    20. Mondol, Jayanta Deb & Yohanis, Yigzaw G & Norton, Brian, 2009. "Optimising the economic viability of grid-connected photovoltaic systems," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 86(7-8), pages 985-999, July.
    21. de Alegría, Iñigo Martínez & Martín, Jose Luis & Kortabarria, Iñigo & Andreu, Jon & Ereño, Pedro Ibañez, 2009. "Transmission alternatives for offshore electrical power," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(5), pages 1027-1038, June.
    22. Ekren, Orhan & Ekren, Banu Y., 2010. "Size optimization of a PV/wind hybrid energy conversion system with battery storage using simulated annealing," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 592-598, February.
    23. DeCarolis, Joseph F. & Keith, David W., 2005. "The Costs of Wind's Variability: Is There a Threshold?," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 69-77.
    24. Swider, Derk J. & Beurskens, Luuk & Davidson, Sarah & Twidell, John & Pyrko, Jurek & Prüggler, Wolfgang & Auer, Hans & Vertin, Katarina & Skema, Romualdas, 2008. "Conditions and costs for renewables electricity grid connection: Examples in Europe," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1832-1842.
    25. Stoutenburg, Eric D. & Jenkins, Nicholas & Jacobson, Mark Z., 2010. "Power output variations of co-located offshore wind turbines and wave energy converters in California," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 2781-2791.
    26. Greenblatt, Jeffery B. & Succar, Samir & Denkenberger, David C. & Williams, Robert H. & Socolow, Robert H., 2007. "Baseload wind energy: modeling the competition between gas turbines and compressed air energy storage for supplemental generation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 1474-1492, March.
    27. Denny, Eleanor, 2009. "The economics of tidal energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1914-1924, May.
    28. Hellgren, Jonas, 2007. "Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 39-49, January.
    29. Dusonchet, Luigi & Telaretti, Enrico, 2010. "Economic analysis of different supporting policies for the production of electrical energy by solar photovoltaics in western European Union countries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3297-3308, July.
    30. Berry, David, 2009. "Innovation and the price of wind energy in the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4493-4499, November.
    31. Ahman, Max, 2006. "Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 433-443, March.
    32. Sovacool, Benjamin K. & Watts, Charmaine, 2009. "Going Completely Renewable: Is It Possible (Let Alone Desirable)?," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 95-111, May.
    33. Wilson, Ian Allan Grant & McGregor, Peter G. & Hall, Peter J., 2010. "Energy storage in the UK electrical network: Estimation of the scale and review of technology options," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4099-4106, August.
    34. Cavallo, Alfred, 2007. "Controllable and affordable utility-scale electricity from intermittent wind resources and compressed air energy storage (CAES)," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 120-127.
    35. Boccard, Nicolas, 2010. "Economic properties of wind power: A European assessment," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 3232-3244, July.
    36. Delucchi, Mark & Lipman, Timothy, 2001. "An Analysis of the Retail and Lifecycle Cost of Battery-Powered Electric Vehicles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt50q9060k, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Wind power Solar power Water power;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:39:y:2011:i:3:p:1170-1190. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.