The economics of wind power with energy storage
We develop a nonlinear mathematical optimization program for investigating the economic and environmental implications of wind penetration in electrical grids and evaluating how hydropower storage could be used to offset wind power intermittence. When wind power is added to an electrical grid consisting of thermal and hydropower plants, it increases system variability and results in a need for additional peak-load, gas-fired generators. Our empirical application using load data for Alberta's electrical grid shows that costs of wind-generated electricity vary from $37 per MWh to $68/MWh, and depend primarily on the wind profiles of installed turbines. Costs of reducing CO2 emissions are estimated to be $41-$56 per t CO2. When pumped hydro storage is introduced in the system or the capacity of the water reservoirs is enhanced, the hydropower facility could provide most of the peak load requirements obviating the need to build large peak-load gas generators.
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- Kim, T.S., 2004. "Comparative analysis on the part load performance of combined cycle plants considering design performance and power control strategy," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 71-85.
- Weisser, Daniel & Garcia, Raquel S., 2005. "Instantaneous wind energy penetration in isolated electricity grids: concepts and review," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1299-1308.
- Lawrence Pitt & G. Cornelis van Kooten & Murray Love & Ned Djilali, 2005. "Utility-scale Wind Power: Impacts of Increased Penetration," Working Papers 2005-01, University of Victoria, Department of Economics, Resource Economics and Policy Analysis Research Group.
- Ferdinand E. Banks, 2003. "An introduction to the economics of natural gas," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 27(1), pages 25-63, 03.
- Belanger, Camille & Gagnon, Luc, 2002. "Adding wind energy to hydropower," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(14), pages 1279-1284, November.
- Lund, Henrik, 2005. "Large-scale integration of wind power into different energy systems," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 30(13), pages 2402-2412.
- DeCarolis, Joseph F. & Keith, David W., 2006. "The economics of large-scale wind power in a carbon constrained world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 395-410, March.
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