Power grid balancing of energy systems with high renewable energy penetration by demand response
It is generally accepted that the integration of intermittent energy resources like wind energy and photovoltaics into an electricity system cannot exceed a limit of around 20% or 25%, see, e.g. [EWEA, 2005. Large-scale integration of wind energy in the European power supply: analysis, issues and recommendations. The European Wind Energy Association]. However, the decoupling of electricity generation and consumption cannot be implemented only by use of electricity storage. In the end, electricity is converted into many different energy services - quite often into thermal energy - which is better suited for storage. This article presents the results of investigations which studied the potentialÂ of those demand response activities for Germany. The investigations are based on both modelling of thermal storage devices and laboratory tests.
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