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Lucky women in unlucky cohorts

Author

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  • Berniell, Inés
  • Gasparini, Leonardo
  • Marchionni, Mariana
  • Viollaz, Mariana

Abstract

This paper assesses gender differences in the effects of adverse conditions at labor-market entry in a developing region. Using harmonized microdata from national household surveys for 15 Latin American countries, we build a synthetic panel of cohorts that potentially transition from school to work and observe their labor market outcomes 10 years later. We find that men who faced higher unemployment rates at ages 18–20 suffer a negative effect on employment at ages 27–30. In contrast, women from those same unlucky cohorts have higher employment rates and earnings. Our results are consistent with women acting as secondary workers in downturns. We also find that initial labor market conditions correlate with the role played by women within the household and to perceptions about gender roles later in life. Such higher empowerment could be a result of increased female labor participation and at the same time might act as a mechanism underlying the persistence of the positive effects on female labor outcomes.

Suggested Citation

  • Berniell, Inés & Gasparini, Leonardo & Marchionni, Mariana & Viollaz, Mariana, 2023. "Lucky women in unlucky cohorts," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 161(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:deveco:v:161:y:2023:i:c:s0304387822001845
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jdeveco.2022.103042
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Crises; Unemployment; Scarring effects; Gender; Secondary worker; Latin America;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials

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