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Stuck at a crossroads? The duration of the Italian school-to-work transition

Author

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  • Pastore, Francesco
  • Quintano, Claudio
  • Rocca, Antonella

Abstract

Purpose – There is a long period from completing studies to finding a permanent or temporary (but at least satisfactory) job in all European countries, especially in Mediterranean countries, including Italy. This paper aims to study the determinants of this duration and measure them, for the first time in a systematic way, in the case of Italy. Design/methodology/approach – This paper provides several measures of duration, including education level and other criteria. Furthermore, it attempts to identify the main determinants of the long Italian transition, both at a macroeconomic and an individual level. It tests for omitted heterogeneity of those who are stuck at this important crossroads in their life within the context of parametric survival models. Findings – The average duration of the school-to-work transition for young people aged 18–34 years was 2.88 years (or 34.56 months) in 2017. A shorter duration was found for the highly educated; they found a job on average 46 months earlier than those with compulsory education. At a macroeconomic level, the duration over the years 2004–2017 was inversely related to spending in the labour market policy and in education, GDP growth, and the degree of trade-union density; however, it was directly related to the proportion of temporary contracts. At the individual level, being a woman, a migrant, or living in a densely populated area in the South are the risk factors for remaining stuck in the transition. After correcting for omitted heterogeneity, there is clear evidence of positive duration dependence. Practical implications – Positive duration dependence suggests that focusing on education and labour policy, rather than labour flexibility, is the best way to smooth the transition. Originality – This study develops our understanding of the Italian STWT regime by providing new and detailed evidence of its duration and by studying its determinants.

Suggested Citation

  • Pastore, Francesco & Quintano, Claudio & Rocca, Antonella, 2020. "Stuck at a crossroads? The duration of the Italian school-to-work transition," GLO Discussion Paper Series 595, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:595
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    Cited by:

    1. Pastore, Francesco & Quintano, Claudio & Rocca, Antonella, 2021. "Some young people have all the luck! The duration dependence of the school-to-work transition in Europe," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    2. Raffaella Cascioli, 2021. "The Employment Prospects of Young Graduates in Italy during and after the 2008 Crisis," Economie et Statistique / Economics and Statistics, Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (INSEE), issue 522-523, pages 43-59.
    3. Francesco Pastore & Marco Pompili, 2020. "Assessing the Impact of Off-the-Job and On-the-Job Training on Employment Outcomes: A Counterfactual Evaluation of the PIPOL Program," Evaluation Review, , vol. 44(2-3), pages 145-184, April.
    4. Doruk, Ömer Tuğsal & Pastore, Francesco, 2020. "School to Work Transition and Macroeconomic Conditions in the Turkish Economy," GLO Discussion Paper Series 730, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    5. Pignatti Clemente & Van Belle Eva, 2021. "Better together: Active and passive labor market policies in developed and developing economies," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 12(1), pages 1-27, January.
    6. Aina, Carmen & Brunetti, Irene & Mussida, Chiara & Scicchitano, Sergio, 2021. "Even more discouraged? The NEET generation at the age of COVID-19," GLO Discussion Paper Series 863, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    7. Krafft Caroline & Assaad Ragui & Rahman Khandker Wahedur, 2021. "Introducing the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2018," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 12(1), pages 1-40, January.
    8. Davide Fiaschi & Cristina Tealdi, 2021. "Young people between education and the labour market during the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy," Papers 2106.08296, arXiv.org.
    9. Carmen Aina & Francesco Pastore, 2020. "Delayed Graduation and Overeducation in Italy: A Test of the Human Capital Model Versus the Screening Hypothesis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 152(2), pages 533-553, November.
    10. Pastore, Francesco & Quintano, Claudio & Rocca, Antonella, 2021. "The Duration of the School-To-Work Transition in Italy and in Other European Countries: A Flexible Baseline Hazard Interpretation," IZA Discussion Papers 14832, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    School-to-work transition; Passive and active labour policy; Survival models; Positive duration dependence; Italy;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • I24 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Inequality
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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