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An Individual Level Analysis of the Disposition Effect: Empirical and Experimental Evidence

  • Weber, Martin

    ()

    (Lehrstuhl für ABWL, Finanzwirtschaft, insb. Bankbetriebslehre)

  • Welfens, Frank

    ()

    (Lehrstuhl für ABWL, Finanzwirtschaft, insb. Bankbetriebslehre)

The disposition effect describes investors’ common tendency of quitting a winning investment too soon and holding on to losing investments too long (Shefrin and Statman 1985). Our paper analyses individual level disposition effects using both account level field data as well as a controlled laboratory experiment. While we observe the disposition effect on aggregate, the extent to which a single decision maker is affected varies considerably across investors. We find overwhelming evidence for relative stability of individual disposition effects both within and across tasks, as well as across time. Learning, nevertheless, attenuates the magnitude of the effect strongly both within tasks and over time. In accordance with prior research, we also document that frequent traders sell their winners less and their losers more often, resulting in lower disposition effects.

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Paper provided by Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim & Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim in its series Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications with number 07-45.

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Length: 0 pages
Date of creation: 27 Jun 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:xrs:sfbmaa:07-45
Note: Financial support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, SFB 504, at the University of Mannheim, is gratefully acknowledged.
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  1. Glaser, Markus & Langer, Thomas & Weber, Martin, 2005. "Overconfidence of Professionals and Lay Men: Individual Differences Within and Between Tasks?," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 05-25, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
  2. Terrance Odean, 1998. "Are Investors Reluctant to Realize Their Losses?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(5), pages 1775-1798, October.
  3. David Genesove & Christopher Mayer, 2001. "Loss Aversion and Seller Behavior: Evidence from the Housing Market," NBER Working Papers 8143, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Richard Thaler, 1985. "Mental Accounting and Consumer Choice," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 4(3), pages 199-214.
  5. Glaser, Markus, 2003. "Online Broker Investors: Demographic Information, Investment Strategy, Portfolio Positions, and Trading Activity," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 03-18, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
  6. Grinblatt, Mark & Han, Bing, 2005. "Prospect theory, mental accounting, and momentum," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 311-339, November.
  7. Mark Grinblatt, 2001. "What Makes Investors Trade?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 589-616, 04.
  8. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-91, March.
  9. Martin Weber & Heiko Zuchel, 2005. "How Do Prior Outcomes Affect Risk Attitude? Comparing Escalation of Commitment and the House-Money Effect," Decision Analysis, INFORMS, vol. 2(1), pages 30-43, March.
  10. Brad M. Barber & Terrance Odean, 2000. "Trading Is Hazardous to Your Wealth: The Common Stock Investment Performance of Individual Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 773-806, 04.
  11. Philip Brown & Nick Chappel & Ray Da Silva Rosa & Terry Walter, 2006. "The Reach of the Disposition Effect: Large Sample Evidence Across Investor Classes-super-," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 6(1-2), pages 43-78.
  12. Joshua D. Coval & Tyler Shumway, 2005. "Do Behavioral Biases Affect Prices?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(1), pages 1-34, 02.
  13. Weber, Martin & Camerer, Colin F., 1998. "The disposition effect in securities trading: an experimental analysis," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 167-184, January.
  14. Shapira, Zur & Venezia, Itzhak, 2001. "Patterns of behavior of professionally managed and independent investors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(8), pages 1573-1587, August.
  15. Peter R. Locke & Zhan Onayev, 2005. "Trade Duration: Information and Trade Disposition," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 113-129, 02.
  16. Glaser, Markus, 2003. "Online broker investors : demographic information, investment strategy, portfolio positions, and trading activity," Papers 03-18, Sonderforschungsbreich 504.
  17. Shefrin, Hersh & Statman, Meir, 1985. " The Disposition to Sell Winners Too Early and Ride Losers Too Long: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 777-90, July.
  18. Thaler, Richard, 1980. "Toward a positive theory of consumer choice," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 39-60, March.
  19. Frino, Alex & Johnstone, David & Zheng, Hui, 2004. "The propensity for local traders in futures markets to ride losses: Evidence of irrational or rational behavior?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 353-372, February.
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