Regional Effects in China of an Emissions-Reduction Policy: Tax v. Subsidy
The issue of the possible adverse effects of a reduction in pollution on the economy is a very real one for China, given its public commitment to substantial cuts in CO2 emissions by 2020. An important part of this issue is the regional dimension Â¨C the pollution reduction is likely to have significantly different effects across the regions and so possibly exacerbate the already large and persistent inter-regional disparities in China. Policy choices will therefore be complicated and will need to be carried out with a clear understanding of the impact of alternative policies at national and regional levels. One important policy choice which has received little, if any, attention in the regional context is the one between a tax on pollution and a subsidy on abatement activity. We help elucidate this policy choice by exploring the tax-subsidy issue in a small theoretical model which captures some of the salient features of the Chinese regions and the tax/expenditure system and which we solve numerically based on a parameterisation achieved using data for the Chinese economy. We find that (i) The adverse economic effects of a reduction in emissions are greater in the interior than in the coast but (ii) the coast is worse-off than the interior due to relative price changes and the effects of the government budget constraint; (iii) the effects of a tax on macroeconomic variables such as wages, profits and output are greater than they are in the case of a subsidy, particularly in the short run but (iv) there is little to choose between the two instruments as far as welfare is concerned.
|Date of creation:||Nov 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.ersa.org
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bohringer, Christoph & Rutherford, Thomas F., 1997. "Carbon Taxes with Exemptions in an Open Economy: A General Equilibrium Analysis of the German Tax Initiative," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 189-203, February.
- Moriki Hosoe & Tohru Naito, 2006. "Trans-boundary pollution transmission and regional agglomeration effects-super-," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 85(1), pages 99-120, 03.
- Canfei He & Yehua Dennis Wei & Xiuzhen Xie, 2008. "Globalization, Institutional Change, and Industrial Location: Economic Transition and Industrial Concentration in China," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(7), pages 923-945.
- Liu, Zhiqiang, 2005. "Institution and inequality: the hukou system in China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 133-157, March.
- Fleisher, Belton & Li, Haizheng & Zhao, Min Qiang, 2010.
"Human capital, economic growth, and regional inequality in China,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 215-231, July.
- Fleisher, Belton M. & Li, Haizheng & Zhao, Min Qiang, 2007. "Human Capital, Economic Growth, and Regional Inequality in China," IZA Discussion Papers 2703, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Fleisher, Belton M. & Li, Haizheng & Zhao, Min Qiang, 2008. "Human Capital, Economic Growth, and Regional Inequality in China," IZA Discussion Papers 3576, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Belton Fleisher & Haizheng Li & Min Qiang Zhao, 2007. "Human Capital, Economic Growth, and Regional Inequality in China," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp857, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Belton Fleisher & Haizheng Li & Min-Qiang Zhao, 2009. "Human Capital, Economic Growth, and Regional Inequality in China," Working Papers 09-01, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
- Fisher-Vanden, Karen & Ho, Mun S., 2007. "How do market reforms affect China's responsiveness to environmental policy?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(1), pages 200-233, January.
- Rosendahl, Knut Einar, 2008. "Incentives and prices in an emissions trading scheme with updating," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 69-82, July.
- Vennemo, Haakon & Aunan, Kristin & Jianwu, He & Tao, Hu & Shantong, Li, 2009. "Benefits and costs to China of three different climate treaties," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 139-160, August.
- Woodland, Alan D. & Yoshida, Chisato, 2006. "Risk preference, immigration policy and illegal immigration," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(2), pages 500-513, December.
- Fischer, Carolyn, 2004.
"Emissions Pricing, Spillovers, and Public Investment in Environmentally Friendly Technologies,"
dp-04-02, Resources For the Future.
- Fischer, Carolyn, 2008. "Emissions pricing, spillovers, and public investment in environmentally friendly technologies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 487-502, March.
- Chen, Anping & Groenewold, Nicolaas, 2013. "Does investment allocation affect the inter-regional output gap in China? A time-series investigation," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 197-206.
- Liang, Qiao-Mei & Fan, Ying & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2007. "Carbon taxation policy in China: How to protect energy- and trade-intensive sectors?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 311-333.
- Aunan, Kristin & Berntsen, Terje & O'Connor, David & Persson, Therese Hindman & Vennemo, Haakon & Zhai, Fan, 2007. "Benefits and costs to China of a climate policy," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(03), pages 471-497, June.
- Beladi, Hamid & Rapp, John, 1993. "Urban Unemployment and the Backward Incidence of Pollution Control," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 153-63.
- Bye, Brita & Jacobsen, Karl, 2011. "Restricted carbon emissions and directed R&D support; an applied general equilibrium analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 543-555, May.
- Boucekkine Raouf & Germain Marc, 2009.
"The Burden Sharing of Pollution Abatement Costs in Multi-Regional Open Economies,"
The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics,
De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-34, June.
- BOUCEKKINE, Raouf & GERMAIN, Marc, . "The burden sharing of pollution abatement costs in multi-regional open economies," CORE Discussion Papers RP 2114, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Galinato, Gregmar I. & Yoder, Jonathan K., 2010. "An integrated tax-subsidy policy for carbon emission reduction," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 310-326, August.
- Whalley, John & Zhang, Shunming, 2007. "A numerical simulation analysis of (Hukou) labour mobility restrictions in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 392-410, July.
- Tim Callan & Sean Lyons & Sue Scott & Richard S. J. Tol & Stefano Verde, 2008.
"The Distributional Implications of a Carbon Tax in Ireland,"
WP250, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
- Callan, Tim & Lyons, Sean & Scott, Susan & Tol, Richard S.J. & Verde, Stefano, 2009. "The distributional implications of a carbon tax in Ireland," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 407-412, February.
- Costas Hadjiyiannis & Panos Hatzipanayotou & Michael S. Michael, 2009. "Public Pollution Abatement, Regional Capital Mobility, and Tax Competition," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 703–719, January.
- repec:cor:louvrp:-2114 is not listed on IDEAS
- Nicolaas Groenewold & Alfred Hagger, 2007. "The effects of fiscal equalisation in a model with endogenous regional governments: an analysis in a two-region numerical model," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 353-374, June.
- Liang, Qiao-Mei & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2012. "Distributional impacts of taxing carbon in China: Results from the CEEPA model," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 545-551.
- Zhang, Da & Rausch, Sebastian & Karplus, Valerie J. & Zhang, Xiliang, 2013. "Quantifying regional economic impacts of CO2 intensity targets in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 687-701.
- Beladi, Hamid & Frasca, Ralph, 1996. "Regional pollution and multinational firms," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 117-125, May.
- Sam Meng & Mahinda Siriwardana & Judith McNeill, 2013. "The Environmental and Economic Impact of the Carbon Tax in Australia," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 54(3), pages 313-332, March.
- Chen, Anping, 2010. "Reducing China's regional disparities: Is there a growth cost?," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 2-13, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa13p1275. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Gunther Maier)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.