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An integrated tax-subsidy policy for carbon emission reduction

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  • Galinato, Gregmar I.
  • Yoder, Jonathan K.

Abstract

A carbon tax is often cited by economists as an effective instrument to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but there is little political interest in the United States. In light of this political unpopularity, we develop and examine a net-revenue constrained carbon tax and subsidy program. The optimal revenue constrained tax and subsidy schedule based on our utility maximization model taxes energy sources with high emissions to energy price ratio, and subsidizes sources with low emissions to energy price ratios. This approach may be more palatable than a traditional carbon tax because it can change the relative price of low and high emissions energy sources while providing a mechanism to limit net tax increases and energy price increases. We find that a constrained tax/subsidy program provides welfare gains relative to a no-tax scenario. Welfare gains are estimated to be 1% and 36% of the welfare gains from a Pigouvian tax for the motor fuels industry and electric power industry, respectively. In contrast, subsidies for low-emitting energy sources funded from general tax funds rather than from high-emission energy tax revenues lead to welfare decreases substantially below our proposed tax/subsidy policy approach.

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  • Galinato, Gregmar I. & Yoder, Jonathan K., 2010. "An integrated tax-subsidy policy for carbon emission reduction," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 310-326, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:resene:v:32:y:2010:i:3:p:310-326
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    7. Robert Main, 2013. "Subsidizing Non-Polluting Goods vs. Taxing Polluting Goods for Pollution Reduction," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 41(4), pages 349-362, December.
    8. Krzysztof Zamasz & Radosław Kapłan & Przemysław Kaszyński & Piotr W. Saługa, 2020. "An Analysis of Support Mechanisms for New CHPs: The Case of Poland," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(21), pages 1-18, October.
    9. Chen, Anping & Groenewold, Nicolaas, 2015. "Emission reduction policy: A regional economic analysis for China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 136-152.
    10. Liu, Boying & Shumway, C. Richard & Yoder, Jonathan K., 2017. "Lifecycle economic analysis of biofuels: Accounting for economic substitution in policy assessment," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 146-158.
    11. Zhang, Yunrong & Hong, Zhaofu & Chen, Zhixiang & Glock, Christoph H., 2020. "Tax or subsidy? Design and selection of regulatory policies for remanufacturing," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 287(3), pages 885-900.
    12. Anping Chen & Nicolaas Groenewold, 2013. "Regional Effects in China of an Emissions-Reduction Policy: Tax v. Subsidy," ERSA conference papers ersa13p1275, European Regional Science Association.
    13. Nikodinoska, Dragana & Schröder, Carsten, 2015. "On the emissions-inequality trade-off in energy taxation: Evidence on the German car fuel tax," Discussion Papers 2015/6, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    14. Skolrud, Tristan D. & Galinato, Gregmar I., 2017. "Welfare implications of the renewable fuel standard with an integrated tax-subsidy policy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 291-301.
    15. Bilgili, Faik & Doğan, İbrahim & H. Tülüce, Nadide & Kuşkaya, Sevda, 2014. "The impact of biomass, geothermal and hydroelectric energy consumption on industrial production: A threshold cointegration model with regime shifts," MPRA Paper 90168, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Abolhosseini, Shahrouz & Heshmati, Almas & Altmann, Jörn, 2014. "The Effect of Renewable Energy Development on Carbon Emission Reduction: An Empirical Analysis for the EU-15 Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 7989, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    17. Wanting Chen & Zhi-Hua Hu, 2020. "Analysis of Multi-Stakeholders’ Behavioral Strategies Considering Public Participation under Carbon Taxes and Subsidies: An Evolutionary Game Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(3), pages 1-26, January.
    18. G. Ceccantoni & O. Tarola & C. Vergari, 2017. "Relative tax in a vertically differentiated market: the key role of consumers in environment," Working Papers wp2005, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    19. Pereira, Alfredo & Pereira, Rui, 2017. "The Role of Electricity for the Decarbonization of the Portuguese Economy - DGEP Technical Report," MPRA Paper 84782, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Doshi, Amar & Pascoe, Sean & Coglan, Louisa & Rainey, Thomas J., 2016. "Economic and policy issues in the production of algae-based biofuels: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 329-337.
    21. Amigues, Jean-Pierre & Lafforgue, Gilles & Chakravorty, Ujjayant & Moreaux, Michel, 2020. "Comparing volume and blend renewable energy mandates under a carbon budget," TSE Working Papers 20-1138, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    22. McCullough, Michael & Holland, David W. & Painter, Kathleen M. & Stodick, Leroy & Yoder, Jonathan K., 2011. "Economic and Environmental Impacts of Washington State Biofuel Policy Alternatives," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 36(3), pages 1-15.
    23. Bilgili, Faik & Koçak, Emrah & Bulut, Ümit, 2016. "The dynamic impact of renewable energy consumption on CO2 emissions: A revisited Environmental Kuznets Curve approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 838-845.
    24. Bilgili, Faik, 2015. "Business cycle co-movements between renewables consumption and industrial production: A continuous wavelet coherence approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 325-332.

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