IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wiw/wiwrsa/ersa11p261.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Is there a bubble in the Chinese housing market?

Author

Listed:
  • Christian Dreger
  • Yanqun Zhang

Abstract

For many analysts, the Chinese economy is spurred by a bubble in the housing market, probably driven by the fiscal stimulus package and massive credit expansion, with possible adverse effects to the real economy. For example, the stock of loans increased by more than 50 percent since the end of 2008. The government urged banks to increase lending to mitigate the economic slowdown. Home mortgage loans have played a significant role in the development, as they account for one third of the total lending activities. Banks have provided easy credit for housing development, probably without sufficient evaluation of risks. State-owned enterprises may have stimulated the development, as they have access to low cost capital and may believe they are too big to fail. In this paper, the house price development is investigated both at the national and regional level. First, it is investigated whether a bubble exists. Analysis is based on a long run equilibrium between real house prices and demographic and macroeconomic conditions. Using a regional dataset for 35 major Chinese cities, the size of the bubble is estimated relative to the fundamental level implied by the panel cointegrating relationship. Second, the impact of real house prices on CPI inflation and GDP growth is investigated at the national level using an in sample and out of sample framework. The results indicate the presence of a house price bubble. Real house prices are 25 percent above their equilibrium value. The bubble is especially pronounced in the cities of the southeast coastal areas and the special economic zones. While the impact of real house prices on CPI inflation seems to be rather strong, GDP growth may not be heavily affected. Real house prices do not cause GDP growth, and point forecasts of GDP growth are not improved if the house price evolution is taken into account. These findings might reflect a limited exposure of private households expenditures to housing wealth. Therefore, a decline of the bubble could have only modest effects on the course of the real economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Christian Dreger & Yanqun Zhang, 2011. "Is there a bubble in the Chinese housing market?," ERSA conference papers ersa11p261, European Regional Science Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa11p261
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-sre.wu.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa11/e110830aFinal00261.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, 2004. "Some cautions on the use of panel methods for integrated series of macroeconomic data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 322-340, December.
    2. Chen, Jie & Zhu, Aiyong, 2008. "The relationship between housing investment and economic growth in China FA panel analysis using quarterly provincial data," Working Paper Series 2008:17, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
    3. Liu Hongyu & Yun W. Park & Zheng Siqi, 2002. "The Interaction between Housing Investment and Economic Growth in China," International Real Estate Review, Global Social Science Institute, vol. 5(1), pages 40-60.
    4. Chang, Yoosoon, 2004. "Bootstrap unit root tests in panels with cross-sectional dependency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 263-293, June.
    5. Yves Zenou, 2012. "Housing policies in China: Issues and options," Regional Science Policy & Practice, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(4), pages 393-417, November.
    6. Liang Peng & Thomas Thibodeau, 2012. "Government Interference and the Efficiency of the Land Market in China," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(4), pages 919-938, November.
    7. Joakim Westerlund, 2007. "Testing for Error Correction in Panel Data," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(6), pages 709-748, December.
    8. Wu, Jing & Gyourko, Joseph & Deng, Yongheng, 2012. "Evaluating conditions in major Chinese housing markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 531-543.
    9. Pietro Cova & Massimiliano Pisani & Alessandro Rebucci, 2010. "Macroeconomic Effects of China’s Fiscal Stimulus," Research Department Publications 4689, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    10. Karl E. Case & Robert J. Shiller, 2003. "Is There a Bubble in the Housing Market?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(2), pages 299-362.
    11. Campbell, John Y & Shiller, Robert J, 1987. "Cointegration and Tests of Present Value Models," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(5), pages 1062-1088, October.
    12. Kremers, Jeroen J M & Ericsson, Neil R & Dolado, Juan J, 1992. "The Power of Cointegration Tests," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 325-348, August.
    13. Damiaan Persyn & Joakim Westerlund, 2008. "Error-correction–based cointegration tests for panel data," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(2), pages 232-241, June.
    14. Charles Goodhart & Boris Hofmann, 2008. "House prices, money, credit, and the macroeconomy," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(1), pages 180-205, spring.
    15. Zheng, Siqi & Kahn, Matthew E., 2008. "Land and residential property markets in a booming economy: New evidence from Beijing," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 743-757, March.
    16. Flood, Robert P & Hodrick, Robert J, 1990. "On Testing for Speculative Bubbles," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 85-101, Spring.
    17. Dennis R. Capozza & Patric H. Hendershott & Charlotte Mack & Christopher J. Mayer, 2002. "Determinants of Real House Price Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 9262, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Dennis R. Capozza & Charlotte Mack & Patric H. Hendershott & Christopher J. Mayer, 2002. "The Determinants of House Price Dynamics," ERES eres2002_106, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Wu, Jing & Gyourko, Joseph & Deng, Yongheng, 2016. "Evaluating the risk of Chinese housing markets: What we know and what we need to know," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 91-114.
    2. Renhe Liu & Eddie Chi-man Hui & Jiaqi Lv & Yi Chen, 2017. "What Drives Housing Markets: Fundamentals or Bubbles?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 55(4), pages 395-415, November.
    3. Niu, Geng & Yu, Li & Fan, Gang-Zhi & Zhang, Donghao, 2019. "Corporate fraud, risk avoidance, and housing investment in China," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 18-33.
    4. Xiaoping Zhou & Zhenyang Qin & Yingjie Zhang & Linyi Zhao & Yan Song, 2019. "Quantitative Estimation and Spatiotemporal Characteristic Analysis of Price Deviation in China's Housing Market," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(24), pages 1-28, December.
    5. Jing Wu & Yongheng Deng & Hongyu Liu, 2014. "House Price Index Construction in the Nascent Housing Market: The Case of China," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 522-545, April.
    6. Zhou, Zhengyi, 2016. "Overreaction to policy changes in the housing market: Evidence from Shanghai," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 26-41.
    7. Nannan Yuan & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2014. "Are government interventions effective in regulating China fs house prices?," Discussion Papers 1427, Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University.
    8. Tommaso Gabrieli & Keith Pilbeam & Tianyu Wang, 2018. "Estimation of bubble dynamics in the Chinese real estate market: a State space model," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 483-499, April.
    9. Gabrieli, Tommaso & Panagiotidis, Theodore & Xu, Yishuang, 2019. "Pair-wise convergence of intra-city house prices in Beijing," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 20(C).
    10. Deng, Yongheng & Girardin, Eric & Joyeux, Roselyne, 2018. "Fundamentals and the volatility of real estate prices in China: A sequential modelling strategy," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 205-222.
    11. Francesco Tajani & Pierluigi Morano & Maria Paz Saez-Perez & Felicia Di Liddo & Marco Locurcio, 2019. "Multivariate Dynamic Analysis and Forecasting Models of Future Property Bubbles: Empirical Applications to the Housing Markets of Spanish Metropolitan Cities," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(13), pages 1-21, June.
    12. I-Chun Tsai, 2017. "The housing market and excess monetary liquidity in China," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 53(2), pages 599-615, September.
    13. I-Chun Tsai & Shu-Hen Chiang, 2018. "Risk Transfer among Housing Markets in Major Cities in China," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(7), pages 1-20, July.
    14. Ren, Yu & Xiong, Cong & Yuan, Yufei, 2012. "House price bubbles in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 786-800.
    15. Wan, Junmin, 2018. "Prevention and landing of bubble," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 190-204.
    16. Bago, Jean-Louis & Souratié, Wamadini M. & Ouédraogo, Moussa & Ouédraogo, Ernest & Dembélé, Alou, 2019. "Financial Bubbles : New Evidence from South Africa’s Stock Market," MPRA Paper 95685, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Bolan Liu & Xiaowei Ai & Pan Liu & Chuang Zhang & Xingqi Hu & Tianpu Dong, 2015. "Fuel Economy Improvement of a Heavy-Duty Powertrain by Using Hardware-in-Loop Simulation and Calibration," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(9), pages 1-14, September.
    18. Xin Zhang & David Geltner & Richard Neufville, 2018. "System Dynamics Modeling of Chinese Urban Housing Markets for Pedagogical and Policy Analysis Purposes," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 57(3), pages 476-501, October.
    19. Weizeng Sun & Siqi Zheng & David M. Geltner & Rui Wang, 2017. "The Housing Market Effects of Local Home Purchase Restrictions: Evidence from Beijing," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 55(3), pages 288-312, October.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Su-Ling TSAI & Hsien-Hung KUNG & Kai-yin Allison HAGA, 2015. "Testing for Multiple Bubbles in the 35 Large and Medium Cities of Real Estate Price in China," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(4(605), W), pages 275-290, Winter.
    2. Efthymios Pavlidis & Alisa Yusupova & Ivan Paya & David Peel & Enrique Martínez-García & Adrienne Mack & Valerie Grossman, 2016. "Episodes of Exuberance in Housing Markets: In Search of the Smoking Gun," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 419-449, November.
    3. Syed Abul Basher & Elsayed Mousa Elsamadisy, 2012. "Country heterogeneity and long-run determinants of inflation in the Gulf Arab states," OPEC Energy Review, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, vol. 36(2), pages 170-203, June.
    4. Matei Demetrescu & Christoph Hanck & Adina I. Tarcolea, 2014. "Iv-Based Cointegration Testing In Dependent Panels With Time-Varying Variance," Journal of Time Series Analysis, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(5), pages 393-406, August.
    5. Thomas Goda & Chris Stewart & Alejandro Torres García, 2016. "Absolute Income Inequality and Rising House Prices," Documentos de Trabajo CIEF 015247, Universidad EAFIT.
    6. Jérôme Vandenbussche & Ursula Vogel & Enrica Detragiache, 2015. "Macroprudential Policies and Housing Prices: A New Database and Empirical Evidence for Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 47(S1), pages 343-377, March.
    7. Gabriele Galati & Federica Teppa & Rob Alessie, 2013. "Heterogeneity in house price dynamics," DNB Working Papers 371, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    8. Holly, Sean & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Yamagata, Takashi, 2010. "A spatio-temporal model of house prices in the USA," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 158(1), pages 160-173, September.
    9. Rosenberg, Signe, 2019. "The effects of conventional and unconventional monetary policy on house prices in the Scandinavian countries," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C).
    10. Belke, Ansgar & Dreger, Christian, 2011. "Current account imbalances in the euro area: Catching up or competitiveness?," Discussion Papers 297, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    11. Jian Xue & Zeeshan Rasool & Raima Nazar & Ahmad Imran Khan & Shaukat Hussain Bhatti & Sajid Ali, 2021. "Revisiting Natural Resources—Globalization-Environmental Quality Nexus: Fresh Insights from South Asian Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(8), pages 1-19, April.
    12. Kivedal, Bjørnar Karlsen, 2013. "Testing for rational bubbles in the US housing market," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 38(PB), pages 369-381.
    13. Khanna, Rupika & Sharma, Chandan, 2021. "Does infrastructure stimulate total factor productivity? A dynamic heterogeneous panel analysis for Indian manufacturing industries," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 59-73.
    14. Rosés, Joan R. & Carmona Pidal, Juan Antonio & Lampe, Markus, 2012. "Housing markets during the rural-urban transition : evidence from early 20th century Spain," IFCS - Working Papers in Economic History.WH wp12-10, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Figuerola.
    15. Jaunky, Vishal Chandr, 2012. "Is there a material Kuznets curve for aluminium? evidence from rich countries," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 296-307.
    16. repec:zbw:rwirep:0241 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Juan Carmona & Markus Lampe & Joan Rosés, 2017. "Housing affordability during the urban transition in Spain," Economic History Review, Economic History Society, vol. 70(2), pages 632-658, May.
    18. Dreger, Christian & Reimers, Hans-Eggert, 2014. "On the relationship between public and private investment in the euro area," Discussion Papers 344, European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), Department of Business Administration and Economics.
    19. Halkos, George, 2011. "Economy - environment relationship: The case of sulphur emissions," MPRA Paper 45480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Joao Sousa Andrade & Irina Syssoyeva-Masson, 2016. "Investigating the presence of long memory in debt series and its relation with growth," EcoMod2016 9627, EcoMod.
    21. José Cerón & Javier Suarez, 2006. "Hot and Cold Housing Markets: International Evidence," Working Papers wp2006_0603, CEMFI.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa11p261. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.ersa.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Gunther Maier (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.ersa.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.