The importance of energy quality in energy intensive manufacturing: Evidence from panel cointegration and panel FMOLS
This paper expands on the panel GDP–energy cointegration modeling literature; it does so by using data disaggregated along sectoral lines and adjusting energy consumption for the quality of the energy source (e.g., electricity is of higher quality than oil, which is of higher quality than coal) in order to examine the role of energy quality in the five most energy intensive manufacturing sectors (iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, non-metallic minerals, chemicals, and pulp and paper). The database was constructed by combing energy consumption (and energy price data to construct the energy quality index) from the IEA with economic data (value added, labor employed, and physical capital) from the OECD's Structural Analysis Database. In addition to finding the variables analyzed are panel I(1) and cointegrated for each sector-based panel, the long-run elasticity estimates (from panel FMOLS) indicate the importance of energy quality – primarily the shift toward the use of high quality electricity – in these energy-intensive manufacturing sectors. In each case, the elasticity for energy quality is greater than that for conventionally measured energy consumption—sometimes orders of magnitude greater. Indeed, the elasticity of conventionally measured energy consumption is insignificant to very small for three of the five sectors. Also, when using the energy quality measure, the importance of energy consumption relative to the other production factors stands out. Such results are useful for both energy–GDP cointegration/causality modelers and CGE modelers, who may need to estimate elasticities.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Peter Pedroni, 2004.
"Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties of Pooled Time Series Tests with an Application to the PPP Hypothesis,"
Department of Economics Working Papers
2004-15, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Pedroni, Peter, 2004. "Panel Cointegration: Asymptotic And Finite Sample Properties Of Pooled Time Series Tests With An Application To The Ppp Hypothesis," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(03), pages 597-625, June.
- Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-52, Special I.
- Damiaan Persyn & Joakim Westerlund, 2008. "Error-correction–based cointegration tests for panel data," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 8(2), pages 232-241, June.
- Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2004.
"General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1240, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- M. Hashem Pesaran, 2004. "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels," CESifo Working Paper Series 1229, CESifo Group Munich.
- Pesaran, M.H., 2004. "‘General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0435, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- David I. Stern, 1998.
"A multivariate cointegration analysis of the role of energy in the U.S. macroeconomy,"
Working Papers in Ecological Economics
9803, Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program.
- Stern, David I., 2000. "A multivariate cointegration analysis of the role of energy in the US macroeconomy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 267-283, April.
- Martin Wagner & Jaroslava Hlouskova, 2010.
"The Performance of Panel Cointegration Methods: Results from a Large Scale Simulation Study,"
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(2), pages 182-223, April.
- Wagner, Martin & Hlouskova, Jaroslava, 2007. "The Performance of Panel Cointegration Methods. Results from a Large Scale Simulation Study," Economics Series 210, Institute for Advanced Studies.
- Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan, 2007. "The relationship between energy and production: Evidence from Turkish manufacturing industry," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 1151-1165, November.
- Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003.
"Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
- Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Tom Doan, . "IPSHIN: RATS procedure to implement Im, Pesaran and Shin panel unit root test," Statistical Software Components RTS00098, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Oh, Wankeun & Lee, Kihoon, 2004. "Causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP revisited: the case of Korea 1970-1999," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 51-59, January.
- Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Central America: Evidence from a panel cointegration and error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-216.
- Payne, James E., 2010. "A survey of the electricity consumption-growth literature," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 723-731, March.
- Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2008. "Energy consumption and economic growth in Asian economies: A more comprehensive analysis using panel data," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 50-65, January.
- Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "Energy consumption and economic growth: Evidence from the Commonwealth of Independent States," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 641-647, September.
- Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
- Stern, David I., 1993. "Energy and economic growth in the USA : A multivariate approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 137-150, April.
- Pedroni, Peter, 1999.
" Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-70, Special I.
- Peter Pedroni, 1999. "Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Department of Economics Working Papers 2000-02, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Ozturk, Ilhan, 2010. "A literature survey on energy-growth nexus," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 340-349, January.
- Pesaran, M.H., 2003.
"A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross Section Dependence,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
0346, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
- Westerlund, Joakim, 2005.
"Testing for Error Correction in Panel Data,"
2005:11, Lund University, Department of Economics.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015.
"Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, 2004.
"Some cautions on the use of panel methods for integrated series of macroeconomic data,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 7(2), pages 322-340, December.
- Banerjee, A. & Marcellino, M. & Osbat, C., 2000. "Some Cautions on the Use of Panel Methods for Integrated Series of Macro-economic Data," Economics Working Papers eco2000/20, European University Institute.
- Anindya Banerjee & Massimiliano Marcellino & Chiara Osbat, . "Some Cautions on the Use of Panel Methods for Integrated Series of Macro-Economic Data," Working Papers 170, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Smyth, Russell, 2008. "Energy consumption and real GDP in G7 countries: New evidence from panel cointegration with structural breaks," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2331-2341, September.
- Warr, B.S. & Ayres, R.U., 2010. "Evidence of causality between the quantity and quality of energy consumption and economic growth," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1688-1693.
- Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2010. "Energy consumption and growth in South America: Evidence from a panel error correction model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1421-1426, November.
- Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping & Chen, Pei-Fen, 2008. "Energy-income causality in OECD countries revisited: The key role of capital stock," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2359-2373, September.
- James E. Payne, 2010. "Survey of the international evidence on the causal relationship between energy consumption and growth," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(1), pages 53-95, January.
- Smyth, Russell & Narayan, Paresh Kumar & Shi, Hongliang, 2011. "Substitution between energy and classical factor inputs in the Chinese steel sector," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 361-367, January.
- Ziramba, Emmanuel, 2009. "Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in South Africa," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2214-2220, June.
- Sari, Ramazan & Ewing, Bradley T. & Soytas, Ugur, 2008. "The relationship between disaggregate energy consumption and industrial production in the United States: An ARDL approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2302-2313, September.
- Peter Pedroni, 2000.
"Fully Modified OLS for Heterogeneous Cointegrated Panels,"
Department of Economics Working Papers
2000-03, Department of Economics, Williams College.
- Tom Doan, . "PANELFM: RATS procedure to perform panel data group mean FMOLS," Statistical Software Components RTS00151, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Bowden, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2009. "The causal relationship between U.S. energy consumption and real output: A disaggregated analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 180-188.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:34:y:2012:i:6:p:1819-1825. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.