Productivity growth and resource degradation in Pakistan's Punjab - a decomposition analysis
The introduction of green revolution technologies in wheat, and rice production in Asia, in the mid 1960s reversed the food crisis, and stimulated rapid agricultural, and economic growth. But the sustainability of this intensification strategy is being questioned, in light of the heavy use of external inputs, and growing evidence of a slowdown in productivity growth, and degradation of the resource base. The authors address the critical issue of long-term productivity, and the sustainability of Pakistan's irrigated agriculture. To estimate changes in total factor productivity in four production systems of Punjab province, they assemble district-level data on 33 crops, 8 livestock products, and 17 input categories. They find that average annual growth in total factor productivity was moderately high (1.26 percent) for both crops, and livestock for the period 1966-94, but observe wide variation in productivity growth by cropping system. A second, disaggregated data set on soil, and water quality reveals significant resource degradation. The authors use the two data sets to decompose the effects of technical change, and resource degradation through application of a cost function. They find that continuous, and widespread resource degradation (as measured by soil and water quality variables) has had a significant negative effect on productivity, especially in the wheat-rice system, where resource degradation has more than offset the productivity effects of technological change. Degradation of the health of the agro-ecosystem was related in part, to modern technologies, mono-cropping, and mismanagement of water resources. The results call for urgent analysis of technology, and options to arrest the degradation of resources.
|Date of creation:||30 Nov 2000|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Byerlee, Derek & Siddiq, Akmal, 1994. "Has the green revolution been sustained? The quantitative impact of the seed-fertilizer revolution in Pakistan revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1345-1361, September.
- Faruquee, Rashid, 1995. "Government's role in Pakistan agriculture : major reforms are needed," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1468, The World Bank.
- Lynam, John K. & Herdt, Robert W., 1989. "Sense and sustainability: Sustainability as an objective in international agricultural research," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 3(4), pages 381-398, December.
- Hulten, Charles R., 1986. "Productivity change, capacity utilization, and the sources of efficiency growth," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1-2), pages 31-50.
- Ehui, Simeon K. & Spencer, Dunstan S. C., 1993. "Measuring the sustainability and economic viability of tropical farming systems: a model from sub-Saharan Africa," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 9(4), pages 279-296, December.
- Stefano Pagiola, 2004. "Environmental and Natural Resource Degradation in Intensive Agriculture in Bangladesh," Others 0405008, EconWPA.
- Thompson, Gary D., 1988. "Choice Of Flexible Functional Forms: Review And Appraisal," Western Journal of Agricultural Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 13(02), December.
- Lynam, John K. & Herdt, Robert W., 1989. "Sense and Sustainability: Sustainability as an Objective in International Agricultural Research," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 3(4), December.
- Ehui, Simeon K. & Spencer, Dunstan S.C., 1993. "Measuring the sustainability and economic viability of tropical farming systems: a model from sub-Saharan Africa," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 9(4), December.
- Frank M. Gollop & Gregory P. Swinand, 1998. "From Total Factor to Total Resource Productivity: An Application to Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(3), pages 577-583.
- Hulten, Charles R, 1973. "Divisia Index Numbers," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 41(6), pages 1017-1025, November.
- Russell W. Pittman, 1981. "Issue in Pollution Control: Interplant Cost Differences and Economies of Scale," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 57(1), pages 1-17.
- Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
- Robert D. Weaver, 1998. "Measuring Productivity of Environmentally Interactive Technologies: The Case of Agriculture and the Environment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(3), pages 595-599.
- V. Kerry Smith, 1998. "Should Pollution Reductions Count as Productivity Gains for Agriculture?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(3), pages 591-594.