IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Promoting productive employment in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review of the literature

  • Szirmai, Adam

    ()

    (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)

  • Gebreeyesus, Mulu

    ()

    (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)

  • Guadagno, Francesca

    ()

    (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)

  • Verspagen, Bart

    ()

    (UNU-MERIT / MGSoG)

This report provides an overview of current research on and knowledge about employment trends and policies in sub-Saharan Africa. Access to productive employment is seen as essential for poverty reduction and the inclusion of the poor in wider society. Productive employment is characterised by a. Sufficient income to permit workers and their dependents a level of consumption above the poverty line; b. Stability of this income over time (absence of vulnerability; c. Decent working conditions and working hours. The challenge of African economies lies not so much in open unemployment, as in the quality of employment as defined by earnings, vulnerability and working conditions. Much employment is located in the informal sector, where vulnerability is a serious problem. High youth employment in young populations is another serious challenge. Causes of employment problems include: lack of the right kinds of structural change, skill mismatches on the labour market, insufficient attention for SMEs with growth potential and insufficient innovation. The paper discusses a wide range of policies to promote productive employment including trade policies, sectoral policies, innovation policies, population policies and employment and labour market policies. The paper concludes with a discussion of emerging debates and contrasting views with regard to productive employment. It summarises the debates on agricultural led industrial development, resource based industrialisation, emergence of non-traditional exports, employment in labour intensive modern commercial agriculture, the role of manufacturing in growth and employment creation, the exploitation of unlimited supplies of labour, role of FDI and promoting pro-poor innovation in the informal sector.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.merit.unu.edu/publications/wppdf/2013/wp2013-062.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT) in its series MERIT Working Papers with number 062.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 20 Nov 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2013062
Contact details of provider: Postal: P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht
Phone: (31) (0)43 3883875
Fax: (31) (0)43 3216518
Web page: http://www.merit.unu.edu/

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Bluhm R & Crombrugghe D.P.I. de & Szirmai A., 2013. "The pace of poverty reduction - A fractional response approach," MERIT Working Papers 051, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  2. Geeta Kingdon & John Knight, 2004. "Unemployment in South Africa: the nature of the beast," Labor and Demography 0409003, EconWPA.
  3. Gebreeyesus, Mulu, 2009. "Innovation and Microenterprises Growth in Ethiopia," MERIT Working Papers 053, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  4. Arne Bigsten & Mulu Gebreeyesus, 2007. "The Small, the Young, and the Productive: Determinants of Manufacturing Firm Growth in Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55, pages 813-840.
  5. Zimmermann, Klaus F. & Biavaschi, Costanza & Eichhorst, Werner & Giulietti, Corrado & Kendzia, Michael J. & Muravyev, Alexander & Pieters, Janneke & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Schmidl, Ricarda, 2013. "Youth Unemployment and Vocational Training," Foundations and Trends(R) in Microeconomics, now publishers, vol. 9(1–2), pages 1-157, December.
    • Biavaschi, Costanza & Eichhorst, Werner & Giulietti, Corrado & Kendzia, Michael J. & Muravyev, Alexander & Pieters, Janneke & Rodríguez-Planas, Núria & Schmidl, Ricarda & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2012. "Youth Unemployment and Vocational Training," IZA Discussion Papers 6890, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Micheline Goedhuys & Norbert Janz & Pierre Mohnen, 2008. "What drives productivity in Tanzanian manufacturing firms: technology or business environment?," The European Journal of Development Research, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 199-218.
  7. Geeta Kingdon & John Knight, 2007. "Unemployment in South Africa, 1995--2003: Causes, Problems and Policies," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 16(5), pages 813-848, November.
  8. Michael Grimm & Jens Krüger & Jann Lay, 2011. "Barriers To Entry And Returns To Capital In Informal Activities: Evidence From Sub‐Saharan Africa," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 57, pages S27-S53, 05.
  9. Aliber, Michael & Hart, Tim G.B., 2009. "Should subsistence agriculture be supported as a strategy to address rural food insecurity?," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 48(4), December.
  10. Léonce Ndikumana & Sher Verick, 2008. "The Linkages Between FDI and Domestic Investment: Unravelling the Developmental Impact of Foreign Investment in Sub-Saharan Africa," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 26(6), pages 713-726, November.
  11. Jones, Sam & Tarp, Finn, 2013. "Jobs and welfare in Mozambique," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  12. Francis Teal & Courtney Monk & Justin Sandefur, 2008. "Does Doing an Apprenticeship Pay Off? Evidence from Ghana," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/2008-08, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  13. Lederman, Daniel & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Payton, Lucy, 2010. "Export promotion agencies: Do they work?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 257-265, March.
  14. repec:unu:wpaper:unupb2-2013 is not listed on IDEAS
  15. Lavopa, Alejandro & Szirmai, Adam, 2012. "Industrialization, employment and poverty," MERIT Working Papers 081, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  16. Douglas Zhihua Zeng, 2008. "Knowledge, Technology, and Cluster-Based Growth in Africa," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6918, October.
  17. Ralitza Dimova & Kunal Sen, 2010. "Is household income diversification a means of survival or a means of accumulation? Panel data evidence from Tanzania," Brooks World Poverty Institute Working Paper Series 12210, BWPI, The University of Manchester.
  18. Sosina Bezu & Christopher Barrett, 2012. "Employment Dynamics in the Rural Nonfarm Sector in Ethiopia: Do the Poor Have Time on Their Side?," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(9), pages 1223-1240, September.
  19. Cling, Jean-Pierre & Razafindrakoto, Mireille & Roubaud, Francois, 2005. "Export processing zones in Madagascar: a success story under threat?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 785-803, May.
  20. Micheline Goedhuys & Leo Sleuwaegen, 2010. "High-growth entrepreneurial firms in Africa: a quantile regression approach," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 31-51, January.
  21. Yutaka Yoshino, 2011. "Industrial Clusters and Micro and Small Enterprises in Africa : From Survival to Growth," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2546, October.
  22. Tetsushi Sonobe & Yuki Higuchi & Keijiro Otsuka, 2012. "Productivity Growth and Job Creation in the Development Process of Industrial Clusters," GRIPS Discussion Papers 11-22, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
  23. Mthuli Ncube, 2010. "Financing and Managing Infrastructure in Africa," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 19(suppl_1), pages 114-164.
  24. Admasu Shiferaw & Arjun Bedi, 2010. "The Dynamics of Job Creation and Job Destruction: Is Sub-Saharan Africa Different?," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 22, Courant Research Centre PEG.
  25. Mark D. J. Williams & Rebecca Mayer & Michael Minges, 2011. "Africa's ICT Infrastructure : Building on the Mobile Revolution," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2325, October.
  26. Hinh T. Dinh & Vincent Palmade & Vandana Chandra & Frances Cossar, 2012. "Light Manufacturing in Africa : Targeted Policies to Enhance Private Investment and Create Jobs," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2245, October.
  27. Barro, Robert J. & Lee, Jong Wha, 2013. "A new data set of educational attainment in the world, 1950–2010," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 184-198.
  28. Iizuka, Michiko & Gebreeyesus, Mulu, 2012. "A systemic perspective in understanding the successful emergence of non-traditional exports: two cases from Africa and Latin America," MERIT Working Papers 052, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  29. Clarke, George, 2012. "Manufacturing firms in Africa: Some stylized facts about wages and productivity," MPRA Paper 36122, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  30. Mano, Yukichi & Yamano, Takashi & Suzuki, Aya & Matsumoto, Tomoya, 2011. "Local and Personal Networks in Employment and the Development of Labor Markets: Evidence from the Cut Flower Industry in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1760-1770.
  31. James R. Tybout, 2000. "Manufacturing Firms in Developing Countries: How Well Do They Do, and Why?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 11-44, March.
  32. Rizzo, Matteo, 2011. "Rural wage employment in Rwanda and Ethiopia : a review of the current policy neglect and a framework to begin addressing it," ILO Working Papers 464524, International Labour Organization.
  33. Marito Garcia & Jean Fares, 2008. "Youth in Africa's Labor Market," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6578, October.
  34. L. Sekwati & N. Narayana, 2011. "Stimulating informal sector through vocational education in Botswana," International Journal of Education Economics and Development, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 2(1), pages 81-89.
  35. de Vreyer, Philippe & Roubaud, François, 2013. "Urban Labor Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/13410, Paris Dauphine University.
  36. Jo Lorentzen, 2009. "Learning by firms: the black box of South Africa's innovation system," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(1), pages 33-45, February.
  37. Anker, Richard & Chernyshev, Igor & Egger, Philippe & Mehran, Farhad & Ritter, Joseph, 2002. "Measuring decent work with statistical indicators," ILO Working Papers 362262, International Labour Organization.
  38. Rolph van der Hoeven, 2010. "Employment, Inequality and Globalization: A Continuous Concern," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(1), pages 1-9.
  39. Rijkers, Bob & Ruggeri Laderchi, Caterina & Teal, Francis, 2010. "Who Benefits from Promoting Small Enterprises? Some Empirical Evidence from Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 523-540, April.
  40. Gebreeyesus, Mulu & Mohnen, Pierre, 2011. "Innovation performance and embeddedness in networks: evidence from the Ethiopian footwear cluster," MERIT Working Papers 043, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
  41. Micheline Goedhuys, 2007. "Learning, product innovation, and firm heterogeneity in developing countries; Evidence from Tanzania," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(2), pages 269-292, April.
  42. Barrett, C. B. & Reardon, T. & Webb, P., 2001. "Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 315-331, August.
  43. Sleuwaegen, Leo & Goedhuys, Micheline, 2002. "Growth of firms in developing countries, evidence from Cote d'Ivoire," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 117-135, June.
  44. Ernest Aryeetey & Nelipher Moyo, 2012. "Industrialisation for Structural Transformation in Africa: Appropriate Roles for the State," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 21(suppl_2), pages -ii85, January.
  45. Harry Sackey & Barfour Osei, 2006. "Human Resource Underutilization in an Era of Poverty Reduction: An Analysis of Unemployment and Underemployment in Ghana," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 18(2), pages 221-247.
  46. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521520843 is not listed on IDEAS
  47. Banji Oyelaran‐Oyeyinka & Kaushalesh Lal, 2006. "Institutional Support for Collective Learning: Cluster Development in Kenya and Ghana," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 18(2), pages 258-278.
  48. Jones, Chris & Morrissey, Oliver & Nelson, Doug, 2011. "Did the World Bank Drive Tariff Reforms in Eastern Africa?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 324-335, March.
  49. Barrett, Christopher B. & Holden, Stein & Clay, Daniel C., 2002. "Can Food-for-Work Programmes Reduce Vulnerability?," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:unm:unumer:2013062. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ad Notten)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.