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Arbeitsplatzoffensive für Afrika

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  • Altenburg, Tilman

Abstract

In Afrika fehlen produktive Arbeitsplätze. Das Hauptproblem ist dabei nicht Arbeitslosigkeit, sondern es sind Unterbeschäftigung, mangelnde Produktivität und prekäre Arbeitsbedingungen. In Ländern, in denen es keine nennenswerte Sozialhilfe gibt, können es sich nur wenige Menschen leisten, wirklich arbeitslos sein. 84 % der Erwerbsbevölkerung Subsahara-Afrikas ist informell und unregelmäßig beschäftigt, die meisten sind selbstbeschäftigt. Was fehlt sind produktive und stabile Jobs. Ehemals arme Länder in anderen Regionen haben einen Strukturwandel durchlaufen, in dem Arbeitskräfte aus der Subsistenzlandwirtschaft und dem Kleinsthandel in arbeitsteilig organisierte und diversifizierte Tätigkeiten in Industrie und produktionsorientierten Dienstleistungen wechselten, so dass Produktivität und Einkommen auf breiter Basis stiegen. Ein solcher Strukturwandel findet in Afrika allenfalls äußerst langsam statt. Benötigt werden daher Strategien zur Beschleunigung des Strukturwandels. Dabei ist zweierlei zu beachten. Erstens ist das Segment der modernen Privatwirtschaft mit stabilen Regelarbeitsbeziehungen derzeit so klein, dass selbst mehrere Jahrzehnte mit hohem Wachstum in diesem Segment nicht ausreichen würden, um die große Zahl der prekär Beschäftigten und Arbeitslosen zu integrieren. Benötigt wird daher eine zweigleisige Strategie, die neben der Förderung des modernen Unternehmenssektors zugleich die Produktivität und Einkommen in bäuerlichen und informellen Kleinstunternehmen steigert. Letzteres wird bislang stark vernachlässigt. Zweitens ändern sich die Rahmenbedingungen für den Strukturwandel derzeit radikal Stichworte sind u.a. Urbanisierung, Digitalisierung, Dekarbonisierung, Abwanderung leichtindustrieller Exportbranchen aus China, so dass bisherige Entwicklungswege nicht einfach weiter beschritten werden können; neue Optionen ergeben sich und einige alte werden verschwinden. Die Studie stellt vier Bereiche heraus, in denen sich die deutsche EZ stärker engagieren sollte: (1) Verbesserung der Rahmenbedingungen für die Wirtschaft durch politische Reformen auf Länderebene und deren Unterstützung durch internationale Prozesse wie die Addis Tax Initiative; (2) ein „Zukunftsprogramm afrikanischer Strukturwandel“ zur Identifizierung und Förderung von Potenzialsektoren mit hohen Beschäftigungswirkungen z.B. Ausbau nachhaltiger Bauwirtschaft, Nutzung einer sich diversifizierenden Nachfrage urbaner Mittelschichten für die lokale Unternehmensentwicklung, arbeitsintensiver Ausbau dezentraler Energiesysteme und Anwerben aus China abwandernder Leichtindustrien; (3) Förderung der Produktivität in bäuerlichen und informellen Kleinunternehmen durch Stärkung unternehmerischer und technischer Kompetenzen sowie Nutzung neuer digitaler Technologien; (4) öffentliche Beschäftigungsprogramme für arme Haushalte, da diese schnell bedürftige Personen in großer Zahl in Arbeit bringen und zugleich Infrastrukturvorleistungen für die lokale Wirtschaft bereitstellen können.

Suggested Citation

  • Altenburg, Tilman, 2017. "Arbeitsplatzoffensive für Afrika," Discussion Papers 23/2017, German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:diedps:232017
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    References listed on IDEAS

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