IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/umr/wpaper/201305.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

EU trade regulation for baby food: protecting health or trade?

Author

Listed:
  • DeMaria, F.
  • Drogué, S.

Abstract

This article explores the effect of European Union (EU)’s food safety regulations on the trade of baby food products. A large number of medical studies have shown that pesticides and contaminants contribute to various health problems including cancer, lung disease or reproductive, endocrinal and immune system disorders. They also agree that children are more vulnerable to the dangers of pesticides and contaminants because as soon as they start eating solid foods, they eat a limited number of food items most of which are fruits and vegetables. In order to protect the health of the most vulnerable part of the population, the EU’s regulations establish that no more than 0.01 mg/kg of any single pesticide residue is permitted in baby food products. In this respect, the EU differs from most of its trading partners, the majority of which do not differentiate food safety regulations according to the consumer population age. The purposes of this paper is to compare the EU regulations on Maximum Residual Level of pesticides to those of its major trading partners through a severity index and quantify the impact of the specific European regulations on the trade of baby food products. Results show that the specific EU regulations may be considered as a tool protecting vulnerable population. ....French Abstract : Cet article explore l'effet des réglementations de l'Union européenne (UE) sur la sécurité des aliments sur le commerce d'aliments pour bébé. Un grand nombre d'études médicales ont montré que les pesticides et les contaminants contribuent à divers problèmes de santé comme cancers, maladies pulmonaires ou des désordres du système immunitaire, endocrine ou reproducteur. Ces études s'accordent aussi sur le fait que les enfants sont plus vulnérables aux dangers des pesticides et contaminants car dès qu'ils commencent à manger des aliments solides, ils mangent un nombre limité de produits dont la plupart sont des fruits et légumes. Pour protéger la santé de la partie la plus vulnérable de sa population, l'UE a mis en place une réglementation qui établit que la limite maximale de résidus (LMR) pour n'importe quel pesticide ne doit pas excéder 0.01 mg/kg dans les aliments pour bébé. A ce niveau, la réglementation européenne est très différente de celle de la plupart de ses partenaires commerciaux qui ne différencient pas les réglementations en fonction de l'âge. L'objectif de cet article est de comparer la réglementation de l'UE sur les LMR de pesticides par rapport à celle de ses partenaires commerciaux grâce à un indicateur de sévérité et de quantifier l'impact de de cette réglementation européenne spécifique sur le commerce des produits pour bébé. Les résultats montrent que la réglementation de l'UE représente une barrière à l'entrée sur ses marchés, mais qu'elle a aussi un effet positif sur le volume du commerce.

Suggested Citation

  • DeMaria, F. & Drogué, S., 2013. "EU trade regulation for baby food: protecting health or trade?," Working Papers MOISA 201305, UMR MOISA : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs : CIHEAM-IAMM, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro - Montpellier, France.
  • Handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:201305
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www1.montpellier.inra.fr/bartoli/moisa/bartoli/download/moisa2013_pdf/WP_5_2013.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1707-1721, September.
    2. Achterbosch, Thom J. & Engler, Alejandra & Rau, Marie-Luise & Toledo, Roger, 2009. "Measure the measure: the impact of differences in pesticide MRLs on Chilean fruit exports to the EU," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51765, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
    4. Martijn Burger & Frank van Oort & Gert-Jan Linders, 2009. "On the Specification of the Gravity Model of Trade: Zeros, Excess Zeros and Zero-inflated Estimation," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 167-190.
    5. John Wilson & Tsunehiro Otsuki & Baishali Majumdsar, 2003. "Balancing food safety and risk: do drug residue limits affect international trade in beef?," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 377-402.
    6. Bo Xiong & John Beghin, 2017. "Does European aflatoxin regulation hurt groundnut exporters from Africa?," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 16, pages 287-307 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Wilson, John S. & Otsuki, Tsunehiro, 2004. "To spray or not to spray: pesticides, banana exports, and food safety," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 131-146, April.
    8. repec:wsi:wschap:9789813144415_0010 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Richard Baldwin & Daria Taglioni, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," NBER Working Papers 12516, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Niven Winchester & Marie-Luise Rau & Christian Goetz & Bruno Larue & Tsunehiro Otsuki & Karl Shutes & Christine Wieck & Heloisa L. Burnquist & Maurício J. Pinto de Souza & Rosane Nunes de Faria, 2012. "The Impact of Regulatory Heterogeneity on Agri-food Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(8), pages 973-993, August.
    11. Sampath Jayasinghe & John C. Beghin & Giancarlo Moschini, 2017. "Determinants Of World Demand For U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role Of Trade Costs," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 17, pages 309-320 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    12. Tsunehiro Otsuki & John S. Wilson, 2001. "What price precaution? European harmonisation of aflatoxin regulations and African groundnut exports," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 28(3), pages 263-284, October.
    13. Hikaru Hanawa Peterson & Xianghong Li, 2011. "Consumer Preferences for Product Origin and Processing Scale: The Case of Organic Baby Foods," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 93(2), pages 590-596.
    14. Melo, Oscar & Engler, Alejandra & Nahuehual, Laura & Cofre, Gabriela & Barrena, José, 2014. "Do Sanitary, Phytosanitary, and Quality-related Standards Affect International Trade? Evidence from Chilean Fruit Exports," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 350-359.
    15. Ferro, Esteban & Otsuki, Tsunehiro & Wilson, John S., 2015. "The effect of product standards on agricultural exports," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 68-79.
    16. Drogué, Sophie & DeMaria, Federica, 2012. "Pesticide residues and trade, the apple of discord?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 641-649.
    17. J. M. C. Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2006. "The Log of Gravity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(4), pages 641-658, November.
    18. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2008. "Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(2), pages 441-487.
    19. Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Trognon, Alain, 1984. "Pseudo Maximum Likelihood Methods: Applications to Poisson Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 701-720, May.
    20. Yuan Li & John C. Beghin, 2017. "Protectionism indices for non-tariff measures: An application to maximum residue levels," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 10, pages 167-178 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    21. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    22. Vigani, Mauro & Raimondi, Valentina & Olper, Alessandro, 2012. "International trade and endogenous standards: the case of GMO regulations," World Trade Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(03), pages 415-437, July.
    23. Maguire, Kelly B. & Owens, Nicole N. & Simon, Nathalie B., 2006. "Focus on Babies: A Note on Parental Attitudes and Preferences for Organic Babyfood," Journal of Agribusiness, Agricultural Economics Association of Georgia, vol. 24(2).
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    FOOD SAFETY; PESTICIDES; BABY FOOD PRODUCTS; MARKET ACCESS; GRAVITY MODELING; SECURITE DES ALIMENTS; ALIMENTATION INFANTILE; ACCES AU MARCHE; MODELE GRAVITAIRE;

    JEL classification:

    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:umr:wpaper:201305. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Isabelle Perez). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/moisafr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.