IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ucm/doicae/1927.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Looking through systemic credit risk: determinants, stress testing and market value

Author

Listed:
  • Álvaro Chamizo

    (BBVA.)

  • Alfonso Novales

    (Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico (ICAE), and Department of Economic Analysis, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad Complutense, 28223 Madrid, Spain.)

Abstract

We provide a methodology to estimate a Global Credit Risk Factor (GCRF) from CDS spreads using the information provided by the default-related component of observed spreads. These are previ- ously estimated using Pan and Singleton (2008) methodology. The estimated factor contains higher explanatory power on CDS spread fluctuations across sectors than standard credit indices like iTraxx or CDX. We find a positive association between GCRF and implied volatility variables, and a negative association with MSCI stock market sector indices as well as with interest rates and with the slope and the curvature of the term structure. Such correlations provide useful insights for risk management as well as for the hedging of credit portfolios. Indeed, we present a synthetic factor regression model for GCRF that we apply in a stress testing methodology for credit portfolios as well as to evaluate future credit risk scenarios. Finally, we show evidence suggesting that the exposure to systemic credit risk was priced in the market during the 2006-2015 period.

Suggested Citation

  • Álvaro Chamizo & Alfonso Novales, 2019. "Looking through systemic credit risk: determinants, stress testing and market value," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2019-27, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucm:doicae:1927
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://eprints.ucm.es/id/eprint/57137/1/1927.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Puzanova, Natalia & Düllmann, Klaus, 2013. "Systemic risk contributions: A credit portfolio approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1243-1257.
    2. Antje Berndt & Rohan Douglas & Darrell Duffie & Mark Ferguson, "undated". "Measuring Default Risk Premia from Default Swap Rates and EDFs," GSIA Working Papers 2006-E31, Carnegie Mellon University, Tepper School of Business.
    3. Antje Berndt & Iulian Obreja, 2010. "Decomposing European CDS Returns," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 14(2), pages 189-233.
    4. Jose A. Lopez & Christian Walter, 1997. "Is implied correlation worth calculating? Evidence from foreign exchange options and historical data," Research Paper 9730, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    5. Alfonso Novales & Alvaro Chamizo, 2019. "Splitting Credit Risk into Systemic, Sectorial and Idiosyncratic Components," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 12(3), pages 1-33, August.
    6. Calice, Giovanni, 2014. "CDX and iTraxx and their relation to the systemically important financial institutions: Evidence from the 2008–2009 financial crisis," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 20-37.
    7. Francis A. Longstaff & Sanjay Mithal & Eric Neis, 2005. "Corporate Yield Spreads: Default Risk or Liquidity? New Evidence from the Credit Default Swap Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2213-2253, October.
    8. Díaz, Antonio & Groba, Jonatan & Serrano, Pedro, 2013. "What drives corporate default risk premia? Evidence from the CDS market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 529-563.
    9. Benjamin Yibin Zhang & Hao Zhou & Haibin Zhu, 2009. "Explaining Credit Default Swap Spreads with the Equity Volatility and Jump Risks of Individual Firms," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(12), pages 5099-5131, December.
    10. Robert A. Jarrow & David Lando & Fan Yu, 2008. "Default Risk And Diversification: Theory And Empirical Implications," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Financial Derivatives Pricing Selected Works of Robert Jarrow, chapter 19, pages 455-480, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    11. Eichengreen, Barry & Mody, Ashoka & Nedeljkovic, Milan & Sarno, Lucio, 2012. "How the Subprime Crisis went global: Evidence from bank credit default swap spreads," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 1299-1318.
    12. Guesmi, Khaled & Dhaoui, Abderrazak & Goutte, Stéphane & Abid, Ilyes, 2018. "On the determinants of industry-CDS index spreads: Evidence from a nonlinear setting," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 233-254.
    13. Francis A. Longstaff & Jun Pan & Lasse H. Pedersen & Kenneth J. Singleton, 2011. "How Sovereign Is Sovereign Credit Risk?," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 75-103, April.
    14. Blix Grimaldi, Marianna, 2010. "Detecting and interpreting financial stress in the euro area," Working Paper Series 1214, European Central Bank.
    15. John Y. Campbell & Glen B. Taksler, 2003. "Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(6), pages 2321-2350, December.
    16. Shawkat Hammoudeh & Mohan Nandha & Yuan Yuan, 2013. "Dynamics of CDS spread indexes of US financial sectors," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(2), pages 213-223, January.
    17. Ericsson, Jan & Jacobs, Kris & Oviedo, Rodolfo, 2009. "The Determinants of Credit Default Swap Premia," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(1), pages 109-132, February.
    18. Kaminsky, Graciela L. & Reinhart, Carmen M., 2000. "On crises, contagion, and confusion," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 145-168, June.
    19. Bernd Schwaab & Siem Jan Koopman & André Lucas, 2017. "Global Credit Risk: World, Country and Industry Factors," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 32(2), pages 296-317, March.
    20. Haas Ornelas, José Renato, 2019. "Expected currency returns and volatility risk premia," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 206-234.
    21. Ivashina, Victoria & Scharfstein, David, 2010. "Bank lending during the financial crisis of 2008," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 319-338, September.
    22. Ballester, Laura & Casu, Barbara & González-Urteaga, Ana, 2016. "Bank fragility and contagion: Evidence from the bank CDS market," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 38(PA), pages 394-416.
    23. Vasiliki D. Skintzi & Apostolos‐Paul N. Refenes, 2005. "Implied correlation index: A new measure of diversification," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(2), pages 171-197, February.
    24. Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Yan, Hong, 2010. "Market conditions, default risk and credit spreads," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 743-753, April.
    25. Cathy Chen & Wolfgang Härdle, 2015. "Common factors in credit defaults swap markets," Computational Statistics, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 845-863, September.
    26. Viral Acharya & Itamar Drechsler & Philipp Schnabl, 2014. "A Pyrrhic Victory? Bank Bailouts and Sovereign Credit Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 69(6), pages 2689-2739, December.
    27. Maalaoui Chun, Olfa & Dionne, Georges & François, Pascal, 2014. "Credit spread changes within switching regimes," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 41-55.
    28. Daniel L. Thornton, 2009. "What the Libor-OIS spread says," Economic Synopses, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    29. Roberto Blanco & Simon Brennan & Ian W. Marsh, 2005. "An Empirical Analysis of the Dynamic Relation between Investment‐Grade Bonds and Credit Default Swaps," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(5), pages 2255-2281, October.
    30. Jun Pan & Kenneth J. Singleton, 2008. "Default and Recovery Implicit in the Term Structure of Sovereign CDS Spreads," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(5), pages 2345-2384, October.
    31. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
    32. Ejsing, Jacob & Lemke, Wolfgang, 2011. "The Janus-headed salvation: Sovereign and bank credit risk premia during 2008-2009," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 110(1), pages 28-31, January.
    33. Pedro Pires & João Pedro Pereira & Luís Filipe Martins, 2015. "The Empirical Determinants of Credit Default Swap Spreads: a Quantile Regression Approach," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 21(3), pages 556-589, June.
    34. Dornbusch, Rudiger & Park, Yung Chul & Claessens, Stijn, 2000. "Contagion: Understanding How It Spreads," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 15(2), pages 177-197, August.
    35. Campa, Jose Manuel & Chang, P. H. Kevin, 1998. "The forecasting ability of correlations implied in foreign exchange options," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 855-880, December.
    36. Joost Driessen & Pascal J. Maenhout & Grigory Vilkov, 2009. "The Price of Correlation Risk: Evidence from Equity Options," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(3), pages 1377-1406, June.
    37. Longstaff, Francis A & Schwartz, Eduardo S, 1995. "A Simple Approach to Valuing Risky Fixed and Floating Rate Debt," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(3), pages 789-819, July.
    38. Castrén, Olli & Fitzpatrick, Trevor & Sydow, Matthias, 2009. "Assessing portfolio credit risk changes in a sample of EU large and complex banking groups in reaction to macroeconomic shocks," Working Paper Series 1002, European Central Bank.
    39. Beirne, John, 2012. "The EONIA spread before and during the crisis of 2007–2009: The role of liquidity and credit risk," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 534-551.
    40. Hui, Cho-Hoi & Lo, Chi-Fai & Lau, Chun-Sing, 2013. "Option-implied correlation between iTraxx Europe Financials and Non-Financials Indexes: A measure of spillover effect in European debt crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3694-3703.
    41. Pereira, John & Sorwar, Ghulam & Nurullah, Mohamed, 2018. "What drives corporate CDS spreads? A comparison across US, UK and EU firms," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 188-200.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chamizo, Álvaro & Novales, Alfonso, 2021. "Evaluation of market risk associated with hedging a credit derivative portfolio," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 411-430.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Augustin, Patrick & Subrahmanyam, Marti G. & Tang, Dragon Yongjun & Wang, Sarah Qian, 2014. "Credit Default Swaps: A Survey," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 9(1-2), pages 1-196, December.
    2. Groba, Jonatan & Lafuente, Juan A. & Serrano, Pedro, 2013. "The impact of distressed economies on the EU sovereign market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 2520-2532.
    3. Díaz, Antonio & Groba, Jonatan & Serrano, Pedro, 2013. "What drives corporate default risk premia? Evidence from the CDS market," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 529-563.
    4. Alfonso Novales & Alvaro Chamizo, 2019. "Splitting Credit Risk into Systemic, Sectorial and Idiosyncratic Components," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 12(3), pages 1-33, August.
    5. Sara Cecchetti, 2017. "A quantitative analysis of risk premia in the corporate bond market," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1141, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    6. Hui, Cho-Hoi & Lo, Chi-Fai & Lau, Chun-Sing, 2013. "Option-implied correlation between iTraxx Europe Financials and Non-Financials Indexes: A measure of spillover effect in European debt crisis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3694-3703.
    7. Annaert, Jan & De Ceuster, Marc & Van Roy, Patrick & Vespro, Cristina, 2013. "What determines Euro area bank CDS spreads?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 444-461.
    8. Bedendo, Mascia & Colla, Paolo, 2015. "Sovereign and corporate credit risk: Evidence from the Eurozone," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 34-52.
    9. Koutmos, Dimitrios, 2019. "Asset pricing factors and bank CDS spreads," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 19-41.
    10. Lafuente, Juan Angel & Serrano, Pedro, 2015. "On the compensation for illiquidity in sovereign credit markets," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 83-100.
    11. Leccadito, Arturo & Tunaru, Radu S. & Urga, Giovanni, 2015. "Trading strategies with implied forward credit default swap spreads," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 361-375.
    12. Calice, Giovanni & Ioannidis, Christos & Miao, RongHui, 2016. "A Markov switching unobserved component analysis of the CDX index term premium," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 189-204.
    13. Han, Bing & Zhou, Yi, 2015. "Understanding the term structure of credit default swap spreads," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 18-35.
    14. Antonio Trujillo-Ponce & Reyes Samaniego-Medina & Clara Cardone-Riportella, 2014. "Examining what best explains corporate credit risk: accounting-based versus market-based models," Journal of Business Economics and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(2), pages 253-276, April.
    15. Marra, Miriam, 2015. "The impact of liquidity on senior credit index spreads during the subprime crisis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 148-167.
    16. Benjamin Hippert & André Uhde & Sascha Tobias Wengerek, 2019. "Portfolio benefits of adding corporate credit default swap indices: evidence from North America and Europe," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 203-259, July.
    17. Arakelyan, Armen & Rubio, Gonzalo & Serrano, Pedro, 2015. "The reward for trading illiquid maturities in credit default swap markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 376-389.
    18. Eichengreen, Barry & Mody, Ashoka & Nedeljkovic, Milan & Sarno, Lucio, 2012. "How the Subprime Crisis went global: Evidence from bank credit default swap spreads," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 1299-1318.
    19. Wisniewski, Tomasz Piotr & Lambe, Brendan John, 2015. "Does economic policy uncertainty drive CDS spreads?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 447-458.
    20. Kalimipalli, Madhu & Nayak, Subhankar & Perez, M. Fabricio, 2013. "Dynamic effects of idiosyncratic volatility and liquidity on corporate bond spreads," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2969-2990.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Credit Risk; Systemic Risk; Idiosyncratic Risk; Stress Tests; Factor Models; Market Pricing.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • F34 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Lending and Debt Problems
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ucm:doicae:1927. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/feucmes.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Águeda González Abad (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/feucmes.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.