IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ucm/doicae/1211.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Asymmetric Adjustments in the Ethanol and Grains Markets

Author

Listed:
  • Chia-Lin Chang

    () (Department of Applied Economics, Department of Finance, National Chung Hsing University Taichung, Taiwan)

  • Li-Hsueh Chen

    (California State University-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.)

  • Shawkat Hammoudeh

    (Department of Economics, Drexel University Philadelphia, PA)

  • Michael McAleer

    (Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands, Department of Quantitative Economics, Complutense University of Madrid, and Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University.)

Abstract

This paper examines the long- and short-run asymmetric adjustments and pairs trades for nine pairs of spot and futures prices, itemized as three own pairs for three different bio-fuel ethanol types, three own pairs for three related agricultural products, namely corn, soybeans and sugar, and three cross pairs that included hybrids of the spot price of each of the agricultural products and an ethanol futures price. Most of the spreads’ asymmetric adjustments generally occur during narrowing. The three ethanol pairs that contain the eCBOT futures with each of Chicago spot, New York Harbor spot and Western European (Rotterdam) spot show different long-run adjustments, arbitrage profitable opportunities and price risk hedging capabilities. The asymmetric spread adjustments for the three grains are also different, with corn spread showing the strongest long-run widening adjustment, and sugar showing the weakest narrowing adjustment. Among others, the empirical analysis indicates the importance of potentially hedging the spot prices of agricultural commodities with ethanol futures contracts, which sends an important message that the ethanol futures market is capable of hedging price risk in agricultural commodity markets. The short-run asymmetric adjustments for individual prices in the nine pairs, with the exception of the corn own pair, underscore the importance of futures prices in the price discovery and hedging potential, particularly for ethanol futures.

Suggested Citation

  • Chia-Lin Chang & Li-Hsueh Chen & Shawkat Hammoudeh & Michael McAleer, 2012. "Asymmetric Adjustments in the Ethanol and Grains Markets," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2012-11, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico, revised Apr 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucm:doicae:1211
    Note: The authors wish to thank two referees for helpful comments and suggestions. The first author wishes to acknowledge the financial support of the National Science Council, Taiwan. The fourth author is most grateful for the financial support of the Australian Research Council, National Science Council, Taiwan, and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. Corresponding author: hammousm@drexel.edu
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://eprints.ucm.es/15095/1/1211.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Dahlgran, Roger A., 2009. "Inventory and Transformation Hedging Effectiveness in Corn Crushing," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 34(1), April.
    2. Balke, Nathan S & Fomby, Thomas B, 1997. "Threshold Cointegration," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(3), pages 627-645, August.
    3. Hansen, Bruce E. & Seo, Byeongseon, 2002. "Testing for two-regime threshold cointegration in vector error-correction models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 293-318, October.
    4. Chia-Lin Chang & Michael McAleer & Les Oxley, 2011. "Great Expectatrics: Great Papers, Great Journals, Great Econometrics," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(6), pages 583-619.
    5. Chia-Lin Chang & Esfandiar Maasoumi & Michael McAleer, 2016. "Robust Ranking of Journal Quality: An Application to Economics," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 50-97, January.
    6. Enders, Walter & Siklos, Pierre L, 2001. "Cointegration and Threshold Adjustment," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(2), pages 166-176, April.
    7. Shawkat M. Hammoudeh & Bradley T. Ewing & Mark A. Thompson, 2008. "Threshold Cointegration Analysis of Crude Oil Benchmarks," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 79-96.
    8. Chia-Lin Chang & Michael McAleer & Les Oxley, 2011. "What makes a great journal great in the sciences? Which came first, the chicken or the egg?," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 87(1), pages 17-40, April.
    9. Baffes, John & Haniotis, Tassos, 2010. "Placing the 2006/08 commodity price boom into perspective," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5371, The World Bank.
    10. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    11. Hammoudeh, S.M. & Sarafrazi, S. & Chang, C-L. & McAleer, M.J., 2011. "The Dynamics of Energy-Grain Prices with Open Interest," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2011-19, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    12. Sari, Ramazan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Chang, Chia-Lin & McAleer, Michael, 2012. "Causality between market liquidity and depth for energy and grains," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1683-1692.
    13. Fattouh, Bassam, 2010. "The dynamics of crude oil price differentials," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 334-342, March.
    14. Erjen van Nierop, 2010. "The introduction of the 5-year impact factor: does it benefit statistics journals?," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 64(1), pages 71-76.
    15. Chia‐Lin Chang & Michael McAleer & Les Oxley, 2011. "What Makes A Great Journal Great In Economics? The Singer Not The Song," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(2), pages 326-361, April.
    16. Chia-Lin Chang & Michael McAleer & Les Oxley, 2011. "How are journal impact, prestige and article influence related? An application to neuroscience," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(11), pages 2563-2573, January.
    17. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    18. Demirer, Rıza & Kutan, Ali M. & Shen, Fanglin, 2012. "The effect of ethanol listing on corn prices: Evidence from spot and futures markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 1400-1406.
    19. Shawkat Hammoudeh & Li-Hsueh Chen & Bassam Fattouh, 2010. "Asymmetric Adjustments in Oil and Metals Markets," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 183-204.
    20. Armstrong, Delroy & Zapata, Hector O. & Fortenbery, T. Randall, 2003. "Price Discovery In The Futures And Cash Market For Sugar," 2003 Annual Meeting, February 1-5, 2003, Mobile, Alabama 35239, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    21. Franken, Jason R.V. & Parcell, Joseph L., 2003. "Cash Ethanol Cross-Hedging Opportunities," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 35(03), December.
    22. Erjen van Nierop, 2009. "Why do statistics journals have low impact factors?," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 63(1), pages 52-62.
    23. Hansen Bruce E., 1997. "Inference in TAR Models," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-16, April.
    24. Enders, Walter & Granger, Clive W J, 1998. "Unit-Root Tests and Asymmetric Adjustment with an Example Using the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 16(3), pages 304-311, July.
    25. Zapata, T. Randall Fortenbery & Armstrong, Delroy, 2005. "Price Discovery in the World Sugar Futures and Cash Markets: Implications for the Domincan Republic," Staff Paper Series 469, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    26. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    27. Franken, Jason R.V. & Parcell, Joe L., 2003. "Cash Ethanol Cross-Hedging Opportunities," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(03), pages 510-516, December.
    28. Mattos, Fabio & Garcia, Philip, 2004. "Price Discovery In Thinly Traded Markets: Cash And Futures Relationships In Brazilian Agricultural Futures Markets," 2004 Conference, April 19-20, 2004, St. Louis, Missouri 19019, NCR-134 Conference on Applied Commodity Price Analysis, Forecasting, and Market Risk Management.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chia-Lin Chang & Chia-Ping Liu & Michael McAleer, 2016. "Volatility Spillovers for Spot, Futures, and ETF Prices in Energy and Agriculture," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 16-046/III, Tinbergen Institute.
    2. Zhang, Chuanguo & Chen, Xiaoqing, 2014. "The impact of global oil price shocks on China’s bulk commodity markets and fundamental industries," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 32-41.
    3. Chang, Chia-Lin & McAleer, Michael & Wang, Yu-Ann, 2018. "Modelling volatility spillovers for bio-ethanol, sugarcane and corn spot and futures prices," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 81(P1), pages 1002-1018.
    4. Chang, C-L. & McAleer, M.J. & Wang, Y-A., 2016. "Modelling Volatility Spillovers for Bio-ethanol, Sugarcane and Corn," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI2016-15, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    5. Serra, Teresa & Zilberman, David, 2013. "Biofuel-related price transmission literature: A review," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 141-151.
    6. Awudu, Iddrisu & Wilson, William & Dahl, Bruce, 2016. "Hedging strategy for ethanol processing with copula distributions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 59-65.
    7. Mensi, Walid & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Nguyen, Duc Khuong & Yoon, Seong-Min, 2014. "Dynamic spillovers among major energy and cereal commodity prices," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 225-243.
    8. Wixson, Sarah E. & Katchova, Ani L., 2012. "Price Asymmetric Relationships in Commodity and Energy Markets," 123rd Seminar, February 23-24, 2012, Dublin, Ireland 122553, European Association of Agricultural Economists.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Long run; short run; asymmetric adjustments; ethanol; agricultural products; arbitrage opportunities; hedging; widening and narrowing adjustment.;

    JEL classification:

    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • Q11 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
    • Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ucm:doicae:1211. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Águeda González Abad). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/feucmes.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.