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Removing policy based comparative advantage for energy intensive production. Necessary adjustments of the real exchange rate and industry structure

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Abstract

National and international expansion of transmission networks and diminishing returns to scale in hydropower capacity expansion has raised the opportunity cost of electricity. The resulting changes in comparative advantage between industries have in many countries been counteracted by government assistance to energy intensive industries. A good example is the implicit electricity price subsidies offered to energy intensive manufacturing in Norway through the state owned power company Statkraft. We use firm data to assess the share of firms that will survive in the long run when these subsidies are removed, highlighting that large cost heterogeneity within the industries may imply diminishing returns to scale at the industry level. This feature is incorporated in a multisectoral CGE model, which is used to estimate the equilibrium adjustments of the industry structure and relative prices of removing the subsidies. Such a policy will lead to a less specialised industry structure and reduces gross trade. The positive public budget effect allows the government to cut other taxes, which fuels the real exchange rate depreciation necessary to meet the national budget constraint.

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  • Torstein Bye & Erling Holmøy & Kim Massey Heide, 2006. "Removing policy based comparative advantage for energy intensive production. Necessary adjustments of the real exchange rate and industry structure," Discussion Papers 462, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
  • Handle: RePEc:ssb:dispap:462
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    Cited by:

    1. Førsund, Finn R. & Vislie, Jon, 2016. "Leif Johansen on intra-industry structural change," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 515-527.
    2. Bye Brita & Faehn Taran & Grünfeld Leo A., 2011. "Growth and Innovation Policy in a Small, Open Economy: Should You Stimulate Domestic R&D or Exports?," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-41, July.
    3. Førsund, Finn R. & Hjalmarsson, Lennart, 2008. "Dynamic Analysis of Structural Change and Productivity Measurement," Memorandum 27/2008, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    4. Billette de Villemeur, Etienne & Pineau, Pierre-Olivier, 2012. "Regulation and electricity market integration: When trade introduces inefficiencies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 529-535.
    5. Kiula, Olga & Markandya, Anil & Ščasný, Milan & Menkyna Tsuchimoto, Fusako, 2014. "The Economic and Environmental Effects of Taxing Air Pollutants and CO2: Lessons from a Study of the Czech Republic," MPRA Paper 66599, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2015.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Industry policy; Comparative advantage; Structural change;

    JEL classification:

    • D21 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Theory
    • E23 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Production
    • E27 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies

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