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Les transactions de la mondialisation

Listed author(s):
  • Guillaume Daudin

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

Dans la continuité de l’étude sur les coûts de logistique de la mondialisation, cet article étudie les coûts de transaction de la mondialisation. Sa première partie présente les différents modes de calculs des coûts des échanges internationaux — dont les coûts de transaction — qui existent : cela permet à la fois de clarifier le concept et de donner une idée, malheureusement imparfaite, des coûts de transaction actuels. Cette partie montre que, si l’utilisation des équations de gravité est la méthode la plus efficace pour déterminer les coûts de transaction agrégés relativement aux coûts des échanges nationaux, il n’est pas possible de mesurer leur valeur absolue. Cette partie souligne encore une fois que les coûts des échanges internationaux sont d’une ampleur considérable : il est d’autant plus surprenant qu’ils soient si peu explorés. La seconde partie étudie l’évolution des coûts de transaction. Les équations de gravité n’apportent guère d’éléments sur l’évolution spécifique des coûts de transaction. Il faut donc explorer d’autres méthodes. Les renseignements disponibles sur l’évolution des intrants aux échanges (e.g. la qualité du système législatif) indiquent qu’elle a dû conduire à une diminution des coûts de transaction unitaires — c’est-à-dire pour une opération commerciale « constante » — des échanges internationaux. L’examen de la transformation des types de biens échangés (e.g. existence ou non d’un marché centralisé pour un bien), des partenaires de l’échange et des canaux des échanges (e.g. présence ou non d’intermédiaires), indique que la baisse des coûts s’est accompagnée d’une modification de la structure des échanges en faveur des échanges « à hauts coûts de transaction ». Il n’existe pas assez d’éléments pour juger des ampleurs relatives de la modification de la structure des échanges et de la baisse des coûts. Malgré l’absence d’une conclusion définitive, cet article est l’occasion d’explorer des aspects des échanges internationaux qui, bien qu’ils mettent en œuvre des sommes très importantes, sont très méconnus.

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Paper provided by Sciences Po in its series Sciences Po publications with number info:hdl:2441/686.

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Date of creation: Jan 2005
Publication status: Published in Revue de l'OFCE, 2005, pp.223-262
Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/686
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.sciencespo.fr/

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