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La banque centrale et l’union monétaire européennes : les tribulations de la crédibilité

Author

Listed:
  • Jérôme Creel

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

  • Jacky Fayolle

    (Centre Etudes & Prospective (Groupe Alpha))

Abstract

La création de l’Union monétaire européenne confère une dimension expérimentale à l’acquisition de la crédibilité par une banque centrale et à sa mise à l’épreuve. Les modèles théoriques qui fondent la notion de crédibilité réduisent la configuration institutionnelle à un schéma très simple et l’évaluation collective de cette crédibilité est réduite à l’opinion moyenne des marchés financiers. Aussi, nous procédons à quelques variations sur un thème de Barro et Gordon (1983). Alors que dans ce modèle, les salariés fixent le salaire nominal avant que l’inflation soit effective, ici, les marchés financiers fixent le taux d’intérêt de long terme de telle façon qu’il égalise l’offre et la demande agrégée de biens. Pour être crédible, la banque centrale devra viser une inflation très faible pendant une longue période afin de faire converger les anticipations des marchés vers un niveau bas d’inflation. Si on projette ces raisonnements sur l’expérience européenne, on peut craindre qu’ils ne confortent l’idée d’un penchant restrictif de la BCE. Ce modèle est éclairant à un second titre : il peut engendrer des équilibres multiples, sources de problèmes de coordination entre agents pour définir un équilibre qui fasse l’objet d’un accord commun. Pour échapper à ces problèmes, la cohérence temporelle de l’action de la BCE, c’est-à-dire une articulation harmonieuse des objectifs et règles de long terme avec une action conjoncturelle adaptée aux circonstances, nécessite la coopération effective des diverses institutions en charge de la politique économique européenne. L’insertion plus franche de la BCE dans un réseau institutionnel qui active les obligations de motivation et de responsabilité auxquelles elle devrait satisfaire contribuerait à clarifier l’horizon qui gouverne ses décisions. De plus, à cause de l’hétérogénéité encore dominante de la zone euro, la BCE peut difficilement se passer d’une représentation de l’économie européenne qui soit plus « structurelle » que « monétariste ». Cette représentation l’inciterait à privilégier l’attention à l’impact global et diversifié des taux d’intérêt et de leur structure plutôt qu’à la maîtrise illusoire d’un agrégat monétaire. La BCE est en charge de la stabilité globale des prix, mais l’exercice de cette responsabilité d’intérêt commun passe par une vision détaillée de l’impulsion et de la propagation des chocs et des tensions au sein de la zone euro. Pour toutes ces raisons, la BCE devra être tout autant anglo-saxonne que germanique, s’inspirer autant de la FED que de la Buba.

Suggested Citation

  • Jérôme Creel & Jacky Fayolle, 2002. "La banque centrale et l’union monétaire européennes : les tribulations de la crédibilité," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/2942, Sciences Po.
  • Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/2942
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Matteo Luciani, 2004. "A VAR Model for the Analysis of the Effects of Monetary Policy in the Euro Area," Rivista di Politica Economica, SIPI Spa, vol. 94(6), pages 175-214, November-.
    2. Jérôme Creel & Jacky Fayolle, 2002. "La Banque Centrale Européenne ou le Seigneur des euros," Revue de l'OFCE, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 0(5), pages 175-210.
    3. Miniaoui, Héla & Smida, Mounir, 2008. "Crédibilité des autorités monétaires et transparence – Quelle complémentarité dans le cas de la Tunisie? Une contribution au débat," L'Actualité Economique, Société Canadienne de Science Economique, vol. 84(2), pages 205-234, juin.
    4. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/3004 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Virginie Traclet, 2004. "Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Canada: Some Interesting Principles for EMU?," Staff Working Papers 04-28, Bank of Canada.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Union monétaire européenne; Banque centrale européenne;

    JEL classification:

    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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