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Erosion du tissu productif en France : causes et remèdes

Listed author(s):
  • Michel Aglietta

    (Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales)

  • Xavier Ragot

    (Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques)

La désindustrialisation de la France, et plus généralement les difficultés des secteurs exposés à la concurrence internationale, révèlent des tendances macroéconomiques et microéconomiques oeuvrant en France et en Europe depuis plus de dix ans. En effet, si le moment proprement financier de la crise commençant en 2007 est le résultat de l’explosion de la bulle immobilière américaine, l’ampleur de l'impact sur l’économie européenne ne peut se comprendre que par des fragilités auparavant ignorées. L’ambition du texte est de tenter une synthèse des facteurs à la fois macroéconomiques et microéconomiques de cette dérive productive. Cette synthèse est nécessaire. En effet, des explications différentes, voire divergentes, sont souvent discutées pour justifier les résultats décevants de l’économie française. La fiscalité, les dettes publiques, la complexité administrative sont parfois avancées comme les causes principales. Ce texte s’oriente résolument vers d’autres explications. Il part d’un résumé des divergences européennes pour préciser le diagnostic sur le tissu productif français. Ensuite, les données d’entreprises sont utilisées pour aller au-delà des tendances révélées par les grands agrégats. De ces analyses il ressort que les prix immobiliers, les divergences des coûts unitaires du travail sont des facteurs qui ont indubitablement pesé sur la rentabilité du capital en France. Les entreprises ont-elles su s’adapter à ces changements macroéconomiques afin de monter en gamme, de se moderniser, de devenir plus productives ? La réponse est négative et c’est bien au niveau des entreprises qu’il faut identifier les blocages. La troisième partie identifie la financiarisation de la gouvernance des entreprises comme la cause de leur difficulté à définir des stratégies de long terme pour monter en gamme. Le renforcement du tissu productif passera par des efforts importants et coordonnés de toutes les parties des entreprises. Efforts qui leur demanderont une gouvernance plus partenariale.

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Paper provided by Sciences Po in its series Sciences Po publications with number 2015-04.

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Date of creation: Feb 2015
Handle: RePEc:spo:wpmain:info:hdl:2441/1fftm81rkt8t48jjlb9s9fh2g5
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.sciencespo.fr/

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