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Implementing REDD through Community-Based Forest Management: Lessons from Tanzania

Author

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  • Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.
  • Albers, H.J.
  • Meshack, Charles
  • Lokina, Razack B.

Abstract

REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) aims to slow carbon releases caused by forest disturbance by making payments conditional on forest quality over time. Like earlier policies to slow deforestation, REDD must change the behaviour of forest degraders. Broadly, it can be implemented with payments to potential forest degraders, thus creating incentives; through payments for enforcement, thus creating disincentives; or through addressing external drivers such as urban charcoal demand. In Tanzania, community-based forest management (CBFM), a form of participatory forest management (PFM), was chosen as the model for implementing REDD pilot programs. Payments are made to villages that have the rights to forest carbon. In exchange for these payments, the villages must demonstrably reduce deforestation at the village level. Using this pilot program as a case study, we provide insights for REDD implementation in sub-Saharan Africa. We pay particular attention to leakage, monitoring and enforcement. We suggest that implementing REDD through CBFM-type structures can create appropriate incentives and behavioural change when the recipients of the REDD funds are also the key drivers of forest change. When external forces drive forest change, however, REDD through CBFM-type structures becomes an enforcement program, with local communities rather than government agencies being responsible for the enforcement. That structure imposes costs on local communities, whose local authority limits the ability to address leakage outside the particular REDD village. In addition, for REDD to lead to lower emissions, implementation will have to emphasize conditionality of payments on measurable decreases in forest loss.

Suggested Citation

  • Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Albers, H.J. & Meshack, Charles & Lokina, Razack B., 2013. "Implementing REDD through Community-Based Forest Management: Lessons from Tanzania," Discussion Papers dp-13-06-efd, Resources For the Future.
  • Handle: RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-06-efd
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Johannesen, Anne Borge & Skonhoft, Anders, 2005. "Tourism, poaching and wildlife conservation: what can integrated conservation and development projects accomplish?," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 208-226, October.
    2. Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Lokina, Razack B., 2011. "A spatial-temporal analysis of the impact of access restrictions on forest landscapes and household welfare in Tanzania," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 79-85, January.
    3. Albers, Heidi J. & Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z., 2011. "The Trees and the Bees: Using Enforcement and Income Projects to Protect Forests and Rural Livelihoods Through Spatial Joint Production," Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association, vol. 40(3), December.
    4. Robinson, Elizabeth J. Z. & Lokina, Razack B., 2012. "Efficiency, enforcement and revenue tradeoffs in participatory forest management: an example from Tanzania," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(01), pages 1-20, February.
    5. Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson & Jeffrey C. Williams & Heidi J. Albers, 2002. "The Influence of Markets and Policy on Spatial Patterns of Non-Timber Forest Product Extraction," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 78(2), pages 260-271.
    6. Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson & Heidi J. Albers & Jeffrey C. Williams, 2011. "Sizing Reserves within a Landscape: The Roles of Villagers’ Reactions and the Ecological-Socioeconomic Setting," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 87(2), pages 233-249.
    7. Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Albers, Heidi J. & Kirama, Stephen L., 2012. "The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas: An Example from Tanzania," Discussion Papers dp-12-03-efd, Resources For the Future.
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    Cited by:

    1. Salas, Paula Cordero, 2014. "Implementation of REDD+ mechanisms in Tanzania," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6815, The World Bank.
    2. Bård Harstad & Torben K. Mideksa, 2017. "Conservation Contracts and Political Regimes," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(4), pages 1708-1734.
    3. repec:eee:forpol:v:83:y:2017:i:c:p:181-190 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Lund, Jens Friis & Sungusia, Eliezeri & Mabele, Mathew Bukhi & Scheba, Andreas, 2017. "Promising Change, Delivering Continuity: REDD+ as Conservation Fad," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 124-139.
    5. Newton, Peter & Schaap, Brian & Fournier, Michelle & Cornwall, Meghan & Rosenbach, Derrick W. & DeBoer, Joel & Whittemore, Jessica & Stock, Ryan & Yoders, Mark & Brodnig, Gernot & Agrawal, Arun, 2015. "Community forest management and REDD+," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 27-37.
    6. Eero Palmujoki & Pekka Virtanen, 2016. "Global, National, or Market? Emerging REDD+ Governance Practices in Mozambique and Tanzania," Global Environmental Politics, MIT Press, vol. 16(1), pages 59-78, February.
    7. Felix, Mwema, 2015. "Future prospect and sustainability of wood fuel resources in Tanzania," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 856-862.

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    Keywords

    REDD; community-based forest management; leakage; Tanzania;

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