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The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas: An Example from Tanzania


  • Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.
  • Albers, Heidi J.
  • Kirama, Stephen L.


Although Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an increasingly popular policy tool for protecting marine stocks and biodiversity, they pose high costs for small-scale fisherfolk who have few alternative livelihood options in poor countries. MPAs often address this burden on local households by providing some benefits to compensate locals and/or induce compliance with restrictions. We argue that MPAs in poor countries can only contribute to sustainability if management induces changes in resource-dependent households’ incentives to fish. With Tanzania’s Mnazi Bay Ruvuma Estuary Marine Park (MBREMP) and its internal villages as an example, we use an economic decision modeling framework as a lens to examine incentives, reaction to incentives, and implications for sustainable MPA management created by park managers’ use of enforcement (“sticks”) and livelihood projects (“carrots”). We emphasize practical implementation issues faced by MBREMP managers and implications for fostering marine ecosystem sustainability in a poor country setting.

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  • Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Albers, Heidi J. & Kirama, Stephen L., 2012. "The Role of Incentives for Sustainable Implementation of Marine Protected Areas: An Example from Tanzania," Discussion Papers dp-12-03-efd, Resources For the Future.
  • Handle: RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-12-03-efd

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Albers, Heidi J. & Ando, Amy W. & Batz, Michael, 2008. "Patterns of multi-agent land conservation: Crowding in/out, agglomeration, and policy," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 492-508, December.
    2. Busby, Gwenlyn M. & Albers, Heidi J. & Montgomery, Claire A., 2007. "Wildfire Risk Management on a Landscape with Public and Private Ownership: Who Pays?," 2007 Annual Meeting, July 29-August 1, 2007, Portland, Oregon TN 9734, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    3. Sanchirico, James N. & Wilen, James E., 2001. "A Bioeconomic Model of Marine Reserve Creation," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 257-276, November.
    4. Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson & Jeffrey C. Williams & Heidi J. Albers, 2002. "The Influence of Markets and Policy on Spatial Patterns of Non-Timber Forest Product Extraction," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 78(2), pages 260-271.
    5. Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson & Heidi J. Albers & Jeffrey C. Williams, 2011. "Sizing Reserves within a Landscape: The Roles of Villagers’ Reactions and the Ecological-Socioeconomic Setting," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 87(2), pages 233-249.
    6. Smith, Martin D. & Wilen, James E., 2003. "Economic impacts of marine reserves: the importance of spatial behavior," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 183-206, September.
    7. Ligon, Ethan & Narain, Urvashi, 1999. "Government Management of Village Commons: Comparing Two Forest Policies," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 272-289, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson & Heidi J. Albers & Charles Meshack & Razack B. Lokina, 2013. "Implementing REDD through community‐based forest management: Lessons from Tanzania," Natural Resources Forum, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 0(3), pages 141-152, August.
    2. Katikiro, Robert E. & Macusi, Edison D. & Ashoka Deepananda, K.H.M., 2015. "Challenges facing local communities in Tanzania in realising locally-managed marine areas," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 220-229.
    3. Barr, Rhona F. & Mourato, Susana, 2014. "Investigating fishers' preferences for the design of marine Payments for Environmental Services schemes," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(C), pages 91-103.
    4. Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z. & Albers, Heidi J. & Ngeleza, Guyslain & Lokina, Razack B., 2014. "Insiders, outsiders, and the role of local enforcement in forest management: An example from Tanzania," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 242-248.

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    marine protected areas; sustainable marine reserves; Tanzania; practical enforcement; marine-dependent livelihoods;

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