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Forecasting China’s Foreign Exchange Reserves Using Dynamic Model Averaging: The Role of Macroeconomic Fundamentals, Financial Stress and Economic Uncertainty


  • Rangan Gupta

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)

  • Shawkat Hammoudeh

    () (Lebow College of Business, Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA)

  • Won Joong Kim

    () (Department of Economics, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea)

  • Beatrice D. Simo-Kengne

    () (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)


We develop models for examining possible predictors of growth of China’s foreign exchange reserves that embrace Chinese and global trade, financial and risk (uncertainty) factors. Specifically, by comparing with other alternative models, we show that the dynamic model averaging (DMA) and dynamic model selection (DMS) models outperform not only linear models (such as random walk, recursive OLS-AR(1) models, recursive OLS with all predictive variables models) but also the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) model for examining possible predictors of growth of those reserves. The DMS is the best overall across all forecast horizons. While some predictors matter more than others over the forecast horizons, there are few that stand the test of time. The US-China interest rate differential has a superior predictive power among the 13 predictors considered, followed by the nominal effective exchange rate and the interest rate spread for most of the forecast horizons. The relative predictive prowess of the oil and copper prices alternates, depending on the commodity cycles. Policy implications are also provided.

Suggested Citation

  • Rangan Gupta & Shawkat Hammoudeh & Won Joong Kim & Beatrice D. Simo-Kengne, 2013. "Forecasting China’s Foreign Exchange Reserves Using Dynamic Model Averaging: The Role of Macroeconomic Fundamentals, Financial Stress and Economic Uncertainty," Working Papers 201338, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pre:wpaper:201338

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Aye, Goodness & Gupta, Rangan & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Kim, Won Joong, 2015. "Forecasting the price of gold using dynamic model averaging," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 257-266.
    2. Omokolade Akinsomi & Goodness C. Aye & Vassilios Babalos & Fotini Economou & Rangan Gupta, 2016. "Real estate returns predictability revisited: novel evidence from the US REITs market," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(3), pages 1165-1190, November.
    3. Dorra Zouari & Achraf Ghorbel & Sonia Ghorbel-Zouari & Younes Boujelbène, 2014. "Volatility spillovers and dynamic correlation between liquidity risk factors in Tunisian banks," International Journal of Managerial and Financial Accounting, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 6(1), pages 1-26.
    4. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-470 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item


    Bayesian; state space models; foreign reserve; macroeconomic fundamentals; forecasting;

    JEL classification:

    • C11 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Bayesian Analysis: General
    • C53 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Forecasting and Prediction Models; Simulation Methods
    • F37 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Finance Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications
    • F47 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

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