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The environmental Kuznets curve within European countries and sectors: greenhouse emission, production function and technology

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  • Auci, Sabrina
  • Trovato, Giovanni

Abstract

Following the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) literature and the theoretical climate change literature, we analyse the impact of per capita GDP on CO2 emissions at industrial level for several European countries. This relationship is evaluated comparing the adjusted EKC specification – CO2 emission conditioned by the effects of income and final energy-consumption of several energy sources – to the simultaneous equations model, considering the determinants of income. Following Dean (2002) we introduce a second equation that takes into consideration the technological progress, measured by human and physical capital, productivity and R&D expenditure. Theoretically, it is well known that new technology and renewable energy adoptions can force the system to a more efficient economy system in term of environment and in term of quality of life. To verify if environmental policy can influence technological change, we address the effect of R&D expenditures and R&D intensities on output, and simultaneously we test weather the output (measured by the per capita GDP) affects or not the greenhouse gas emissions. In this simultaneous equation model, the shape of the GDP-CO2 relationship appears quite sensitive to both sectors and countries. However, the analysis confirms the existence of an EKC among the European countries and sectors.

Suggested Citation

  • Auci, Sabrina & Trovato, Giovanni, 2011. "The environmental Kuznets curve within European countries and sectors: greenhouse emission, production function and technology," MPRA Paper 53442, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:53442
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    Cited by:

    1. Marianna Gilli & Giovanni Marin & Massimiliano Mazzanti & Francesco Nicolli, 2017. "Sustainable development and industrial development: manufacturing environmental performance, technology and consumption/production perspectives," Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 183-203, April.
    2. Cuma Bozkurt & Yusuf Akan, 2014. "Economic Growth, CO2 Emissions and Energy Consumption: The Turkish Case," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(3), pages 484-494.
    3. Bölük, Gülden & Mert, Mehmet, 2014. "Fossil & renewable energy consumption, GHGs (greenhouse gases) and economic growth: Evidence from a panel of EU (European Union) countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 439-446.
    4. Azam, Muhammad, 2016. "Does environmental degradation shackle economic growth? A panel data investigation on 11 Asian countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 175-182.
    5. repec:asi:ajemod:2018:p:47-55 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Air Pollution; Environmental Kuznets curve; Technological progress; Structural change; Environmental policy sustainable development; CO2 emission;

    JEL classification:

    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q55 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environmental Economics: Technological Innovation

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