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Poverty and employment impact of trade liberalization in Nigeria: empirical evidence and policy implications

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  • Balogun, Emmanuel Dele
  • Dauda, Risikat O. S.

Abstract

This paper analyzes quarterly data which spans the period 1985 to 2010 to investigate the interrelationship between trade liberalisation, employment dynamics and the implications for poverty alleviation in Nigeria. An overview of macroeconomic trends and patterns during the period show that although the Nigerian economy experienced growth, it was accompanied by rapid rise in unemployment and poverty. The econometric analysis, estimated by systems equation model, related terms of trade, implicit producer price incentives, openness and macroeconomic policy outcomes on agricultural and industrial sector incomes per capita and total trade. The findings tended to show that the fortunes of these sectors deteriorated contrary to the assertion that a positive relationship exists between liberalization and poverty reduction via improved productivity of labor intensive smallholder farm and firms enterprises. While the apparent growth in total trade seemed to be buoyed by positive export supply shocks, deteriorating terms of trade and biased producer incentives structure penalized domestic manufactures and farming, thereby accentuating poverty. This adverse consequence is attributable to the adoption of import substitution industrialization strategy which encouraged the influx of foreign firms that are appendages of multinationals. In concluding, the paper calls for a shift in policy approach to economic development from the pervasive import substitution trade strategies which tended to displace labor to an export led strategy guided by the doctrine of factor endowments.

Suggested Citation

  • Balogun, Emmanuel Dele & Dauda, Risikat O. S., 2012. "Poverty and employment impact of trade liberalization in Nigeria: empirical evidence and policy implications," MPRA Paper 41006, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Sep 2012.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:41006
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/41006/1/MPRA_paper_41006.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Sébastien Dessus & Kiichiro Fukasaku & Raed Safadi, 2001. "La libéralisation multilatérale des droits de douane et les pays en développement," Cahiers de politique économique du Centre de Développement de l'OCDE 18, OECD Publishing.
    2. L. ALAN WINTERS & NEIL McCULLOCH & ANDREW McKAY, 2015. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: The Evidence So Far," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Non-Tariff Barriers, Regionalism and Poverty Essays in Applied International Trade Analysis, chapter 14, pages 271-314, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Will Martin & Kym Anderson, 2006. "Agricultural Trade Reform and the Doha Development Agenda," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6889, November.
    4. Rattso, Jorn & Torvik, Ragnar, 1998. "Zimbabwean Trade Liberalisation: Ex Post Evaluation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(3), pages 325-346, May.
    5. Philippa Dee & Kevin Hanslow, 2002. "Multilateral liberalisation of services trade," International Trade 0207002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. repec:oup:ecpoli:v:20:y:2005:i:42:p:349-391 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Van der Mensbrugghe, Dominique & Beghin, John C., 2005. "Global Agricultural Reform: What is at Stake?," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12230, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    8. Milner, Chris & Wright, Peter, 1998. "Modelling Labour Market Adjustment to Trade Liberalisation in an Industrialising Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 509-528, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Uchenna R. Efobi, 2016. "The Reconstruction of the Border Roads and Household Welfare in Nigeria: A Gender Study," Research Africa Network Working Papers 16/025, Research Africa Network (RAN).
    2. Efobi Uchenna, 2016. "The Reconstruction of the Border Roads and Household Welfare in Nigeria: A Gender Study," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 16/025, African Governance and Development Institute..
    3. Efobi Uchenna, 2019. "Cross-Border Trade and Infrastructure: A Gender Analysis of Welfare Outcomes in Nigeria," SAGE Open, , vol. 9(2), pages 21582440198, April.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade liberalization; Employment; Poverty reduction;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models

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