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Educational Achievement of Immigrant Children in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance

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  • Levels, Mark
  • Dronkers, Jaap Dronkers
  • Kraaykamp, Gerbert

Abstract

This paper explores the extent to which macro-level characteristics of destination countries, origin countries and immigrant communities can explain differences in the educational achievement of immigrant children. Using data from the 2003 PISA survey, we performed analyses on the mathematical performance of 7403 pupils with a background of immigration from 35 different origin countries in 13 Western countries of destination. Our cross-classified multilevel analyses show that cross-national and cross-group variance cannot be fully explained by compositional differences. Contextual properties of host countries, origin countries and communities also affect the educational performance of immigrant children. We show that the better educational performance of immigrant children in traditional immigrant receiving countries can be explained by strict immigration laws. We further find that the level of economic development of origin countries negatively affects immigrant children’s educational performance, and that children who have a background in more politically stable countries, perform better at school. Finally, we find that socioeconomic differences between immigrant communities and the native population and relative community size negatively affect immigrant children’s scholastic achievement.

Suggested Citation

  • Levels, Mark & Dronkers, Jaap Dronkers & Kraaykamp, Gerbert, 2006. "Educational Achievement of Immigrant Children in Western Countries: Origin, Destination, and Community Effects on Mathematical Performance," MPRA Paper 21653, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:21653
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bauer, Thomas K. & Lofstrom, Magnus & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2000. "Immigration Policy, Assimilation of Immigrants and Natives' Sentiments towards Immigrants: Evidence from 12 OECD-Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 187, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Beck, Thorsten & Clarke, George & Groff, Alberto & Keefer, Philip & Walsh, Patrick, 2000. "New tools and new tests in comparative political economy - the database of political institutions," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2283, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Schlicht-Schmälzle, Raphaela & Teltemann, Janna & Windzio, Michael, 2011. "Deregulation of education: What does it mean for efficiency and equality?," TranState Working Papers 157, University of Bremen, Collaborative Research Center 597: Transformations of the State.
    2. Jaap Dronkers & Manon de Heus, 2012. "The Educational Performance of Children of Immigrants in Sixteen OECD Countries," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1210, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    3. Facundo Albornoz & Antonio Cabrales & Esther Hauk, 2011. "Immigration and the School System," Working Papers 590, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    4. Jaap Dronkers & Rolf van der Velden, 2012. "Positive but also negative effects of ethnic diversity in schools on educational performance? An empirical test using PISA data," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1211, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    5. Dronkers, Jaap, 2010. "Positive but also negative effects of ethnic diversity in schools on educational performance? An empirical test using cross-national PISA data," MPRA Paper 25598, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Dronkers, Jaap & van der Velden, Rolf & Dunne, Allison, 2011. "Why are migrant students better off in certain types of educational systems or schools than in others?," MPRA Paper 37261, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Dronkers, Jaap & Heus, Manon de, 2009. "Negative selectivity of Europe’s guest-worker immigration?," MPRA Paper 22213, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Jaap Dronkers & Manon de Heus & Mark Levels, 2012. "Immigrant Pupils' Scientific Performance: The Influence of Educational System Features of Origin and Destination Countries," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1212, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    9. Jaap Dronkers & Manon de Heus, 2012. "Immigrants' Children Scientific Performance in a Double Comparative Design: The Influence of Origin, Destination, and Community," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1213, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    10. Fenella Fleischmann & Jaap Dronkers, 2007. "The Effects of Social and Labour Market Policies of EU-countries on the Socio-Economic Integration of First and Second Generation Immigrants from Different Countries of Origin," RSCAS Working Papers 2007/19, European University Institute.
    11. Schnepf, Sylke V., 2008. "Inequality of Learning amongst Immigrant Children in Industrialised Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 3337, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Weiss, Volkmar, 2009. "National IQ Means Transformed from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Scores, and their Underlying Gene Frequencies," MPRA Paper 14600, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Dronkers Jaap & Velden Rolf van der & Dunne Allison, 2011. "The effects of educational systems, school-composition, track-level, parental background and immigrants’ origins on the achievement of 15-years old native and immigrant students. A reanalysis of PIS," ROA Research Memorandum 006, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
    14. Kornder Nils & Dronkers Jaap, 2012. "Do migrant girls always perform better? Differences between the reading and math scores of 15-year-old daughters and sons of migrants in PISA 2009 and variations by region of origin and country of des," ROA Research Memorandum 004, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
    15. Agnese Vitali & Bruno Arpino, 2015. "Living Arrangements of Second-Generation Immigrants in Spain: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Analysis," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(2), pages 189-203, February.
    16. Jaap Dronkers & Matthijs Kalmijn, 2013. "Single-parenthood among migrant children: Determinants and consequences for educational performance," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1309, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    17. Jaap Dronkers & Rolf van der Velden & Allison Dunne, 2012. "Why are migrant students better off in certain types of educational systems or schools than in others? On the effects of educational systems, school composition, track level, parental background, and ," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1215, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    18. Prokic-Breuer, Tijana, 2011. "The relative importance of social and cultural capital for educational performance: Eastern versus Western Europe," Discussion Papers, Research Professorship Demographic Development, Social Change, and Social Capital SP I 2011-403, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    19. Sjaak Braster & Jaap Dronkers, 2013. "The positive effects of ethnic diversity in class on the educational performance of pupils in a multi-ethnic European metropole," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 1318, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    20. Song, Steve, 2011. "Second-generation Turkish youth in Europe: Explaining the academic disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 938-949, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    immigrant; educational achievement; cross-national comparison; PISA; origin country; destination country;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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