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Global Trade and the Dollar

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  • Emine Boz
  • Gita Gopinath
  • Mikkel Plagborg-Møller

Abstract

We document that the U.S. dollar exchange rate drives global trade prices and volumes. Using a newly constructed data set of bilateral price and volume indices for more than 2,500 country pairs, we establish the following facts: 1) The dollar exchange rate quantitatively dominates the bilateral exchange rate in price pass-through and trade elasticity regressions. U.S. monetary policy induced dollar fluctuations have high pass-through into bilateral import prices. 2) Bilateral non-commodities terms of trade are essentially uncorrelated with bilateral exchange rates. 3) The strength of the U.S. dollar is a key predictor of rest-of-world aggregate trade volume and consumer/producer price inflation. A 1% U.S. dollar appreciation against all other currencies in the world predicts a 0.6--0.8% decline within a year in the volume of total trade between countries in the rest of the world, controlling for the global business cycle. 4) Using a novel Bayesian semiparametric hierarchical panel data model, we estimate that the importing country's share of imports invoiced in dollars explains 15% of the variance of dollar pass-through/elasticity across country pairs. Our findings strongly support the dominant currency paradigm as opposed to the traditional Mundell-Fleming pricing paradigms.

Suggested Citation

  • Emine Boz & Gita Gopinath & Mikkel Plagborg-Møller, 2017. "Global Trade and the Dollar," NBER Working Papers 23988, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:23988
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    Cited by:

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    3. Habib, Maurizio Michael & Stracca, Livio & Venditti, Fabrizio, 2020. "The fundamentals of safe assets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 102(C).
    4. Chen, Natalie & Chung, Wanyu & Novy, Dennis, 2018. "Vehicle Currency Pricing and Exchange Rate Pass-Through," CEPR Discussion Papers 13085, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    5. Georgios Georgiadis & Saskia Mösle, 2020. "Introducing dominant‐currency pricing in the ECB's global macroeconomic model," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(2), pages 234-256, August.
    6. Mayer, Thierry & Steingress, Walter, 2020. "Estimating the effect of exchange rate changes on total exports," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 106(C).
    7. David Cook & Nikhil Patel, 2018. "Dollar invoicing, exchange rates and international trade," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The price, real and financial effects of exchange rates, volume 96, pages 108-121, Bank for International Settlements.
    8. De Soyres,Francois Michel Marie Raphael & Frohm,Erik & Gunnella,Vanessa & Pavlova,Elena, 2018. "Bought, sold, and bought again : the impact of complex value chains on export elasticities," Policy Research Working Paper Series 8535, The World Bank.
    9. Zhe Chen & Junjie Hong & Xiaonan Sun, 2020. "Exchange rate risk and trade mode choice in processing trade: Evidence from Chinese data," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(2), pages 537-564, May.
    10. Jacob, Punnoose & Uusküla, Lenno, 2019. "Deep habits and exchange rate pass-through," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 67-89.
    11. Mijakovic, Andrej & Rubaszek, Michał & Ca' Zorzi, Michele & Cap, Adam, 2020. "The predictive power of equilibrium exchange rate models," Working Paper Series 2358, European Central Bank.
    12. Matthieu Bussière & Guillaume Gaulier & Walter Steingress, 2020. "Global Trade Flows: Revisiting the Exchange Rate Elasticities," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 25-78, February.
    13. Aleksei Kiselev & Aleksandra Zhivaykina, 2019. "The role of global relative price changes in international comovement of inflation," Bank of Russia Working Paper Series wps53, Bank of Russia.
    14. Antoine Berthou & Emannuel Dhyne, 2018. "Exchange rate movements,firm-level exports and heterogeneity," Working Paper Research 334, National Bank of Belgium.
    15. Maryam Mirfatah & Vasco J. Gabriel & Paul Levine, 2021. "Imperfect Exchange Rate Pass-through: Empirical Evidence and Monetary Policy Implications," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0321, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    16. Aleksandra Babii, 2019. "Exchange Rates Co-movement and International Trade," 2019 Meeting Papers 1150, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    17. Gern, Klaus-Jürgen & Hauber, Philipp & Kooths, Stefan & Stolzenburg, Ulrich, 2018. "Weltkonjunktur im Frühjahr 2018 - Weltwirtschaftliche Dynamik überschreitet ihren Höhepunkt [World economic momentum peaks]," Kieler Konjunkturberichte 39, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E5 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • F4 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance

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