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The Effects of Housing and Neighborhood Conditions on Child Mortality

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  • Brian A. Jacob
  • Jens Ludwig
  • Douglas L. Miller

Abstract

In this paper we estimate the causal effects on child mortality from moving into less distressed neighborhood environments. We match mortality data to information on every child in public housing that applied for a housing voucher in Chicago in 1997 (N=11,848). Families were randomly assigned to the voucher wait list, and only some families were offered vouchers. The odds ratio for the effects of being offered a housing voucher on overall mortality rates is equal to 1.11 for all children (95% CI 0.54 to 2.10), 1.50 for boys (95% CI 0.72 to 2.89) and 0.00 for girls - that is, the voucher offer is perfectly protective for mortality for girls (95% CI 0 to 0.79). Our paper also addresses a methodological issue that may arise in studies of low-probability outcomes - perfect prediction by key explanatory variables.

Suggested Citation

  • Brian A. Jacob & Jens Ludwig & Douglas L. Miller, 2011. "The Effects of Housing and Neighborhood Conditions on Child Mortality," NBER Working Papers 17369, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17369
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Votruba, Mark Edward & Kling, Jeffrey R., 2009. "Effects of neighborhood characteristics on the mortality of black male youth: Evidence from Gautreaux, Chicago," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(5), pages 814-823, March.
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    4. Angrist, Joshua D, 2001. "Estimations of Limited Dependent Variable Models with Dummy Endogenous Regressors: Simple Strategies for Empirical Practice," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(1), pages 2-16, January.
    5. Charles F. Manski, 2000. "Economic Analysis of Social Interactions," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 115-136, Summer.
    6. Ludwig, Jens & Duncan, Greg J. & Katz, Lawrence F. & Kessler, Ronald & Kling, Jeffrey R. & Gennetian, Lisa A. & Sanbonmatsu, Lisa, 2012. "Neighborhood Effects on the Long-Term Well-Being of Low-Income Adults," Scholarly Articles 11870359, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    7. Jeffrey R Kling & Jeffrey B Liebman & Lawrence F Katz, 2007. "Experimental Analysis of Neighborhood Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 75(1), pages 83-119, January.
    8. Lawrence F. Katz & Jeffrey R. Kling & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 2001. "Moving to Opportunity in Boston: Early Results of a Randomized Mobility Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(2), pages 607-654.
    9. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-In-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275.
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    11. repec:mpr:mprres:7081 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Curtis, Lori J. & Dooley, Martin D. & Phipps, Shelley A., 2004. "Child well-being and neighbourhood quality: evidence from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 58(10), pages 1917-1927, May.
    13. Edgar O. Olsen, 2003. "Housing Programs for Low-Income Households," NBER Chapters, in: Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, pages 365-442, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Brian A. Jacob & Jens Ludwig, 2012. "The Effects of Housing Assistance on Labor Supply: Evidence from a Voucher Lottery," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(1), pages 272-304, February.
    15. Angrist, Joshua D, 2001. "Estimations of Limited Dependent Variable Models with Dummy Endogenous Regressors: Simple Strategies for Empirical Practice: Reply," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 19(1), pages 27-28, January.
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    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Method of the month: Permutation tests
      by Sam Watson in The Academic Health Economists' Blog on 2019-02-20 09:00:22

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Daniel Kuehnle, 2013. "The Casual Effect of Family Income on Child Health: A Re-examination Using an Instrumental Variables Approach," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2013n13, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    2. Samuel Asumadu-Sarkodie & Phebe Asantewaa Owusu, 2016. "The casual nexus between child mortality rate, fertility rate, GDP, household final consumption expenditure, and food production index," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 1191985-119, December.
    3. Alexander, Diane & Currie, Janet, 2017. "Is it who you are or where you live? Residential segregation and racial gaps in childhood asthma," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 186-200.
    4. Fabio Nishimura & Breno Sampaio, 2016. "Efeito Da Habitação Sobre A Mortalidade Infantil: Evidências De Um Desenho De Regressão Descontínua," Anais do XLIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 43rd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 198, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    5. Sandler, Danielle H., 2017. "Externalities of public housing: The effect of public housing demolitions on local crime," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 24-35.
    6. John C. Haltiwanger & Mark J. Kutzbach & Giordano Palloni & Henry O. Pollakowski & Matthew Staiger & Daniel H. Weinberg, 2020. "The Children of HOPE VI Demolitions: National Evidence on Labor Market Outcomes," Working Papers 20-39, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    7. Jofre-Bonet, M. & Rossello-Roig, M. & Serra-Sastre, V., 2016. "The Blow of Domestic Violence on Children's Health Outcomes," Working Papers 16/02, Department of Economics, City University London.
    8. Eriksen, Michael D. & Greenhalgh-Stanley, Nadia & Engelhardt, Gary V., 2015. "Home safety, accessibility, and elderly health: Evidence from falls," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 14-24.
    9. Kuehnle, Daniel, 2014. "The causal effect of family income on child health in the UK," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 137-150.
    10. Carr, Jillian B. & Koppa, Vijetha, 2020. "Housing Vouchers, Income Shocks and Crime: Evidence from a Lottery," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 177(C), pages 475-493.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • H75 - Public Economics - - State and Local Government; Intergovernmental Relations - - - State and Local Government: Health, Education, and Welfare
    • I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Behavior
    • R38 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Government Policy

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