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Public Knowledge, Private Knowledge: The Intellectual Capital of Entrepreneurs

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  • Albert Link
  • Christopher Ruhm

Abstract

This paper focuses on the innovative actions of entrepreneurs, namely their tendency to reveal the intellectual capital that results from their research efforts either in the form of public knowledge (publications) or private knowledge (patents). Using data collected by the National Research Council within the U.S. National Academies from their survey of firm's that received National Institutes of Health Phase II Small Business Innovation Research awards between 1992 and 2001, we find that entrepreneurs with academic backgrounds are more likely to publish their intellectual capital compared to entrepreneurs with business backgrounds, who are more likely to patent their intellectual capital. We also find that when universities are research partners, their presence complements the tendencies of academic entrepreneurs but does not offset those of business entrepreneurs.

Suggested Citation

  • Albert Link & Christopher Ruhm, 2009. "Public Knowledge, Private Knowledge: The Intellectual Capital of Entrepreneurs," NBER Working Papers 14797, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:14797
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    Cited by:

    1. David B. Audretsch & Dennis P. Leyden & Albert N. Link, 2013. "Universities as research partners in publicly supported entrepreneurial firms," Chapters, in: Public Support of Innovation in Entrepreneurial Firms, chapter 12, pages 175-192, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Tischler, Joachim & Walter, Sascha, 2014. "Das Patentierverhalten akademischer Gründer nach Abschaffung des Hochschullehrerprivilegs," EconStor Preprints 96157, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    3. Galloway, Tera L. & Miller, Douglas R. & Sahaym, Arvin & Arthurs, Jonathan D., 2017. "Exploring the innovation strategies of young firms: Corporate venture capital and venture capital impact on alliance innovation strategy," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 55-65.
    4. Albert N. Link & Christopher J. Ruhm & Donald S. Siegel, 2014. "Private Equity and the Innovation Strategies of Entrepreneurial Firms: Empirical Evidence from the Small Business Innovation Research Program," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 35(2), pages 103-113, March.
    5. Albert N. Link, 2021. "Knowledge transfers from federally supported R&D," International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 249-260, March.
    6. Rajeev Goel & Devrim Göktepe-Hultén & Rati Ram, 2015. "Academics’ entrepreneurship propensities and gender differences," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 161-177, February.
    7. Link, Albert N. & Ruhm, Christopher J., 2011. "Creativity and the Family Tree: Human Capital Endowments and the Propensity of Entrepreneurs to Patent," IZA Discussion Papers 5988, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Amol M. Joshi & Todd M. Inouye & Jeffrey A. Robinson, 2018. "How does agency workforce diversity influence Federal R&D funding of minority and women technology entrepreneurs? An analysis of the SBIR and STTR programs, 2001–2011," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 50(3), pages 499-519, March.
    9. David Audretsch & Marcel Hülsbeck & Erik Lehmann, 2012. "Regional competitiveness, university spillovers, and entrepreneurial activity," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 587-601, October.
    10. Petra Moog & Arndt Werner & Stefan Houweling & Uschi Backes-Gellner, 2015. "The impact of skills, working time allocation and peer effects on the entrepreneurial intentions of scientists," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(3), pages 493-511, June.
    11. Michael Fritsch & Stefan Krabel, 2012. "Ready to leave the ivory tower?: Academic scientists’ appeal to work in the private sector," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 271-296, June.
    12. Walter, Sascha G. & Schmidt, Arne & Walter, Achim, 2016. "Patenting rationales of academic entrepreneurs in weak and strong organizational regimes," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 533-545.
    13. Joern H. Block & Christian O. Fisch & Mirjam van Praag, 2017. "The Schumpeterian entrepreneur: a review of the empirical evidence on the antecedents, behaviour and consequences of innovative entrepreneurship," Industry and Innovation, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(1), pages 61-95, January.
    14. Rajeev Goel & Devrim Göktepe-Hultén, 2013. "Nascent entrepreneurship and inventive activity: a somewhat new perspective," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(4), pages 471-485, August.
    15. Diego Matricano, 2017. "The influence of sustainable entrepreneurship culture on start-up expectations: A comparative analysis," RIVISTA DI STUDI SULLA SOSTENIBILITA', FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2017(1), pages 71-89.
    16. Rajeev K. Goel & Devrim Göktepe-Hultén, 2019. "Risk attitudes, patenting and invention disclosures by academic researchers," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 44(1), pages 155-166, February.
    17. Albert Link & Christopher Ruhm, 2013. "Fathers’ patenting behavior and the propensity of offspring to patent: an intergenerational analysis," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 332-340, June.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • M14 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Corporate Culture; Diversity; Social Responsibility
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives

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