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Military Expenditures, Inequality, and Welfare and Political Regimes: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

  • Unal Tongur

    ()

    (Department of Economics, METU)

  • Adem Yavuz Elveren

    ()

    (Department of Economics, METU and Sutcu Imam University)

The goal of this paper is to investigate the relationship between type of welfare regimes and military expenditures. There is a sizeable empirical literature on the development of the welfare state and on the typology of the welfare regimes. There appear to be, however, no empirical studies that examine welfare regimes with special attention to military spending. This study aims at providing a comprehensive analysis on the topic by considering several different welfare regime typologies. To do so, we use dynamic panel data analysis for 37 countries for the period of 1988-2003 by considering a wide range of control variables such as type of political regimes, inequality measures, number of terrorist events, and size of the armed forces. Our findings, in line with the literature, show that there is a positive relationship between income inequality and share of military expenditures in the central government budget, and that the number of terrorist events is a significant factor that affects both the level of military expenditure and inequality. Also, the paper reveals a significant negative relationship between social democratic welfare regimes and military expenditures.

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File URL: http://www.erc.metu.edu.tr/menu/series12/1210.pdf
File Function: First version, 2012
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Paper provided by ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University in its series ERC Working Papers with number 1210.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2012
Date of revision: Dec 2012
Handle: RePEc:met:wpaper:1210
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  1. Whelan, Christopher T. & Maitre, Bertrand, 2008. "Comparing Poverty Indicators in an Enlarged EU," Papers WP263, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  2. Bourguignon, Francois & Verdier, Thierry, 2000. "Oligarchy, democracy, inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 285-313, August.
  3. David Roodman, 2009. "How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(1), pages 86-136, March.
  4. Lin, Eric S. & Ali, Hamid E., 2009. "Military Spending and Inequality: Panel Granger Causality Test," MPRA Paper 40159, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  5. Carlos Seiglie, 1997. "Deficits, Defense, and Income Redistribution," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 17(1), pages 11-21, Spring/Su.
  6. R Blundell & Steven Bond, . "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  7. Kemp-Benedict, Eric, 2011. "Political regimes and income inequality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 113(3), pages 266-268.
  8. Klaus Deininger & Lyn Squire, 1996. "A New Data Set Measuring Income Inequality," CEMA Working Papers 512, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
  9. Ian Holliday, 2000. "Productivist Welfare Capitalism: Social Policy in East Asia," Political Studies, Political Studies Association, vol. 48(4), pages 706-723, 09.
  10. Hongyi Li & Lyn Squire & Tao Zhang & Heng-fu Zou, 1999. "A Data Set on Income Distribution," CEMA Working Papers 575, China Economics and Management Academy, Central University of Finance and Economics.
  11. Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May.
  12. Hamid Ali, 2007. "Military Expenditures And Inequality: Empirical Evidence From Global Data," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(6), pages 519-535.
  13. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521447287 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Alberto Chong, 2001. "Inequality, Democracy, and Persistence: Is There a Political Kuznets Curve?," Research Department Publications 4253, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  15. Adem Y. Elveren, 2012. "Military Spending and Income Inequality:Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey,1963--2007," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 289-301, April.
  16. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
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