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Defence, Education and Health Expenditures in Turkey, 1924-96

Author

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  • JÃœLÄ°DE YILDIRIM

    (Department of Economics, Afyon Kocatepe University)

  • SELAMI SEZGIN

    (Department of Public Finance, Pamukkale University)

Abstract

It is often assumed that there is trade-off between defence spending and spending on education and health, even though the empirical literature suggests mixed evidence about its nature. This study investigates the possible trade-off between Turkish defence spending and spending on health and education during the Turkish republican era. In this context, the relationship between health, education and military expenditure has been analysed within a multi-equation framework employing the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) estimation method. The main findings of this article suggest that while military spending decisions are made independently of health and education expenditure, there are trade-offs between defence and welfare spending. While the trade-off is negative between defence and health, it is positive between defence and education. Moreover, it appears that there is a competition between education and health expenditure in the budgeting process.

Suggested Citation

  • Jãœlä°De Yildirim & Selami Sezgin, 2002. "Defence, Education and Health Expenditures in Turkey, 1924-96," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 39(5), pages 569-580, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:joupea:v:39:y:2002:i:5:p:569-580
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    Cited by:

    1. Oumansour Nor-Eddine & Chkiriba Driss, 2019. "External public debt and economic growth in Morocco: assessment and impacts," International Journal of Economic Sciences, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences, vol. 8(2), pages 80-95, December.
    2. Adem Y. Elveren, 2012. "Military Spending and Income Inequality:Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey,1963--2007," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 289-301, April.
    3. Ying Zhang & Xiaoxing Liu & Jiaxin Xu & Rui Wang, 2017. "Does military spending promote social welfare? A comparative analysis of the BRICS and G7 countries," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(6), pages 686-702, November.
    4. Christos Kollias & Suzanna-Maria Paleologou, 2011. "The Macroeconomic Effects of Conflict: Three Case Studies," Chapters, in: Derek L. Braddon & Keith Hartley (ed.), Handbook on the Economics of Conflict, chapter 14, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    5. Seemab Gillani & Muhammad Nouman Shafiq & Tusawar Iftikhar Ahmad, 2019. "Military Expenditures and Health Outcomes: A Global Perspective," iRASD Journal of Economics, International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development (iRASD), vol. 1(1), pages 1-20, June.
    6. Eric S. Lin & Hamid E. Ali & Yu-Lung Lu, 2015. "Does Military Spending Crowd Out Social Welfare Expenditures? Evidence from a Panel of OECD Countries," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(1), pages 33-48, February.
    7. Adam Coutts & Adel Daoud & Ali Fakih & Walid Marrouch & Bernhard Reinsberg, 2019. "Guns and butter? Military expenditure and health spending on the eve of the Arab Spring," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(2), pages 227-237, February.
    8. Eric S. Lin & Hamid E. Ali, 2009. "Military Spending and Inequality: Panel Granger Causality Test," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 46(5), pages 671-685, September.
    9. Seemab Gillani & Muhammad Nouman Shafiq & Tusawar Iftikhar Ahmad, 2019. "Military Expenditures and Health Outcomes: A Global Perspective," iRASD Journal of Energy and Environment, International Research Association for Sustainable Development (iRASD), vol. 1(1), pages 1-20, June.
    10. Unal Tongur & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2012. "Military Expenditures, Inequality, and Welfare and Political Regimes: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," ERC Working Papers 1210, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Dec 2012.
    11. Chiung-Ju Huang & Yuan-Hong Ho, 2018. "Does Taiwan's Defense Spending Crowd out Education and Social Welfare Expenditures?," Journal of Economics and Management, College of Business, Feng Chia University, Taiwan, vol. 14(1), pages 67-82, February.
    12. Ali Hamid E., 2011. "Military Expenditures and Human Development: Guns and Butter Arguments Revisited: A Case Study from Egypt," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 17(1), pages 1-21, September.
    13. Tsai-Yuan Huang & Po-Chin Wu & Shiao-Yen Liu, 2017. "Defense–Growth Causality: Considerations of Regime-Switching and Time- and Country-Varying Effects," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(5), pages 568-584, September.
    14. Rukhsana Kalim & Muhammad Shahid Hassan, 2014. "Public Defense Spending and Poverty in Pakistan," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 211(4), pages 93-115, December.
    15. Khalid ZAMAN & Qazi Shujaat MAHMOOD & Muhammad Mushtaq KHAN & Awais RASHID & Mehboob AHMAD, 2012. "An Empirical Investigation of External Debt - Military Expenditure Nexus in Bangladesh," Economia. Seria Management, Faculty of Management, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania, vol. 15(1), pages 173-188, June.
    16. Adem Elveren & Valentine M. Moghadam, 2019. "The impact of militarization on gender inequality and female labor force participation," Working Papers 1307, Economic Research Forum, revised 21 Aug 2019.
    17. Onur Ozsoy, 2008. "Government Budget Deficits, Defence Expenditure And Income Distribution: The Case Of Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(1), pages 61-75.

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