IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Military Spending and Income Inequality:Evidence on Cointegration and Causality for Turkey,1963--2007

Listed author(s):
  • Adem Y. Elveren

This paper examines the relationship between defence spending and income inequality in Turkey for the period of 1963--2007. Using the Theil Index of pay inequality as a proxy of overall income distribution, this study overcomes the problem of lack of time series data. Utilizing basic cointegration and causality tests, the paper aims to add to the literature by providing evidence that defence spending has an impact on income inequality for the case of Turkey.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/10242694.2011.578414
Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Defence and Peace Economics.

Volume (Year): 23 (2012)
Issue (Month): 3 (April)
Pages: 289-301

as
in new window

Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:23:y:2012:i:3:p:289-301
DOI: 10.1080/10242694.2011.578414
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.tandfonline.com/GDPE20

Order Information: Web: http://www.tandfonline.com/pricing/journal/GDPE20

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window


  1. Selami Sezgin, 2000. "A note on defence spending in turkey: New findings," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 427-435.
  2. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
  3. J Paul Dunne & Ron P. Smith, 2010. "Military Expenditure and Granger Causality: A Critical Review," Working Papers 1007, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
  4. Selami Sezgin, 2001. "An empirical analysis of turkey's defence-growth relationships with a multi-equation model (1956-1994)," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 69-86.
  5. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Some recent development in a concept of causality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1-2), pages 199-211.
  6. J. Paul Dunne & Ron Smith, 2010. "Military Expenditure And Granger Causality: A Critical Review," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(5-6), pages 427-441.
  7. Erdal Karagol, 2006. "The Relationship Between External Debt, Defence Expenditures And Gnp Revisited: The Case Of Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 47-57.
  8. Adem Y. Elveren & James K. Galbraith, 2009. "Pay Inequality in Turkey in the Neo-Liberal Era, 1980-2001," European Journal of Comparative Economics, Cattaneo University (LIUC), vol. 6(2), pages 177-206, December.
  9. Gulay Gunluk-Senesen, 2001. "Measuring the extent of defence expenditures: The Turkish case with Turkish data," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 27-45.
  10. Pundarik Mukhopadhaya, 2004. "World Income Inequality data base (WIID) Review," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 2(3), pages 229-234, December.
  11. Eric S. Lin & Hamid E. Ali, 2009. "Military Spending and Inequality: Panel Granger Causality Test," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 46(5), pages 671-685, September.
  12. Erdal Karagol, 2005. "Defence expenditures and external debt in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 117-125.
  13. Erdal Karagol & Serap Palaz, 2004. "Does defence expenditure deter economic growth in Turkey? A cointegration analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 289-298.
  14. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
  15. John D. Abell, 1994. "Military Spending and Income Inequality," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 31(1), pages 35-43, February.
  16. Temel, Tugrul T. & Tansel, Aysit & Albersen, P.J., 1999. "Convergence and Spatial Patterns in Labor Productivity: Nonparametric Estimations for Turkey," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 29(1).
  17. J. Paul Dunne & Ron Smith & Dirk Willenbockel, 2005. "Models Of Military Expenditure And Growth: A Critical Review," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(6), pages 449-461.
  18. Julide Yildirim & Selami Sezgin, 2003. "Military expenditure and employment in Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(2), pages 129-139.
  19. Hamid Ali, 2007. "Military Expenditures And Inequality: Empirical Evidence From Global Data," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(6), pages 519-535.
  20. Carlos Seiglie, 1997. "Deficits, Defense, and Income Redistribution," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 17(1), pages 11-21, Spring/Su.
  21. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
  22. Onur Ozsoy, 2002. "Budgetary Trade-Offs Between Defense, Education and Health Expenditures: The Case of Turkey," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 129-136.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:23:y:2012:i:3:p:289-301. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Michael McNulty)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.