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Inequality, Democracy, and Persistence: Is There a Political Kuznets Curve?

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  • Alberto Chong

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to provide comprehensive empirical evidence on recent theories that link democracy and income inequality for the period 1960-1997. In simple cross-country regressions I find a non-monotonic link between democracy and inequality when using ordinary least squares, instrumental variables, and Eusufzai tests. I also employ dynamic panel data techniques, which control for potential simultaneity and heterogeneity problems. I also find support for the existence of apolitical Kuznets curve. Moreover, it appears that income inequality is unconditionally persistent. Results are robust to different democracy proxies when sensitivity analysis is applied. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2004.

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  • Alberto Chong, 2004. "Inequality, Democracy, and Persistence: Is There a Political Kuznets Curve?," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(2), pages 189-212, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:ecopol:v:16:y:2004:i:2:p:189-212
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    Cited by:

    1. César Calderón & Alberto Chong, 2004. "Volume and Quality of Infrastructure and the Distribution of Income: An Empirical Investigation," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 50(1), pages 87-106, March.
    2. Valerie Koechlin & Gianmarco Leon, 2007. "International Remittances and Income Inequality: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(2), pages 123-141.
    3. Unal Tongur & Adem Yavuz Elveren, 2012. "Military Expenditures, Inequality, and Welfare and Political Regimes: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," ERC Working Papers 1210, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised Dec 2012.
    4. Christian Bjørnskov & Jacob Mchangama, 2013. "Do Social Rights Affect Social Outcomes?," Economics Working Papers 2013-18, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    5. Antonio Andres & Carlyn Ramlogan-Dobson, 2011. "Is Corruption Really Bad for Inequality? Evidence from Latin America," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(7), pages 959-976.
    6. Bergh, Andreas & Bjørnskov, Christian, 2013. "Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality: What Causes What?," Working Paper Series 994, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    7. Nadezhda V. Baryshnikova & Ngoc T.A. Pham & Maria M. Wihardja, 2016. "Does Political and Economic Inequality Affect Institutional Quality?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 92(297), pages 190-208, June.
    8. Alberto Chong & Mauricio Olivera, 2005. "Votación obligatoria y desigualdad del ingreso en una muestra representativa de países," Research Department Publications 4414, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    9. Nikoloski, Zlatko, 2015. "Democracy and income inequality: revisiting the long and short-term relationship," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 60562, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Kemp-Benedict, Eric, 2011. "Political regimes and income inequality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 113(3), pages 266-268.
    11. Simplice Asongu, 2016. "Reinventing Foreign Aid For Inclusive And Sustainable Development: Kuznets, Piketty And The Great Policy Reversal," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 736-755, September.
    12. Alberto Chong & Luisa Zanforlin, 2004. "Inward-Looking Policies, Institutions, Autocrats, and Economic Growth in Latin America: An Empirical Exploration," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 121(3), pages 335-361, February.
    13. Parcero, Osiris J. & Papyrakis, Elissaios, 2016. "Income inequality and the oil resource curse," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 159-177.
    14. Hoyt Bleakley & Kevin Cowan, 2008. "Corporate Dollar Debt and Depreciations: Much Ado About Nothing?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, pages 612-626.
    15. Alberto Chong & Luisa Zanforlin, 2001. "Políticas de orientación interna, instituciones, autócratas y crecimiento económico en América Latina: un análisis empírico," Research Department Publications 4256, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    16. Simplice Asongu, 2014. "Reinventing foreign aid for inclusive and sustainable development: a survey," Working Papers 14/033, African Governance and Development Institute..
    17. Balcazar Salazar,Carlos Felipe, 2015. "Long-run effects of democracy on income inequality : evidence from repeated cross-sections," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7153, The World Bank.
    18. Bjørnskov, Christian, 2010. "Do elites benefit from democracy and foreign aid in developing countries?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 115-124, July.
    19. Nohra Rey de Marulanda & Julio Guzmán, 2003. "Inequidad, desarrollo humano y política social: Importancia de las "Condiciones Iniciales"," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 10598, Inter-American Development Bank.
    20. Nohra Rey de Marulanda & Julio Guzmán, 2003. "Inequidad, desarrollo humano y política social: Importancia de las "Condiciones Iniciales"," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 1211, Inter-American Development Bank.
    21. Bergh, Andreas & Bjørnskov, Christian, 2014. "Trust, welfare states and income equality: Sorting out the causality," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 183-199.

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