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Monopoly Pricing of an Antibiotic Subject to Bacterial Resistance

  • Markus Herrmann

We develop a dynamic bio-economic model of bacterial resistance and disease transmission in which we characterize the pricing policy of a monopolist who is protected by a patent. After expiration, the monopolist behaves competitively in a generic industry having open access to the common pool of antibiotic efficacy and infection. The monopolist manages endogenously the levels of antibiotic efficacy as well as the infected population, which represent quality and market size respectively and achieves, at least temporarily, higher such levels than a hypothetically myopic monopolist who does not take into account the dynamic externalities. The pricing policy and the biological system are characterized by the turnpike property. Before the patent vanishes, the monopolist behaves more and more myopically, leading to a continuous decrease in the price of the antibiotic. Once the generic industry takes over, a discontinuous fall in price occurs. Whether a prolongation of the patent is socially desirable depends on the relative levels of antibiotic efficacy and infection.

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Paper provided by CIRPEE in its series Cahiers de recherche with number 0946.

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Date of creation: 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:lvl:lacicr:0946
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  1. John B. Horowitz & H. Brian Moehring, 2004. "How property rights and patents affect antibiotic resistance," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(6), pages 575-583.
  2. Kenneth L. Judd, 1998. "Numerical Methods in Economics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262100711, June.
  3. Stéphane Mechoulan, 2005. "Market Structure and Communicable Diseases," Working Papers tecipa-241, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  4. Kingston, William, 2000. "Antibiotics, invention and innovation," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 679-710, June.
  5. Fischer, Carolyn & Laxminarayan, Ramanan, 2005. "Sequential development and exploitation of an exhaustible resource: do monopoly rights promote conservation?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 500-515, May.
  6. GAUDET, Gérard & HERRMANN, Markus, 2007. "The Economic Dynamics of Antibiotic Efficacy under Open Access," Cahiers de recherche 04-2007, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  7. Laxminarayan, Ramanan & Brown, Gardner M., 2001. "Economics of Antibiotic Resistance: A Theory of Optimal Use," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 183-206, September.
  8. Rudholm, Niklas, 2002. "Economic implications of antibiotic resistance in a global economy," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 1071-1083, November.
  9. Gardner Brown & Ramanan Laxminarayan, 1998. "Economics of Antibiotic Resistance," Discussion Papers in Economics at the University of Washington 0060, Department of Economics at the University of Washington.
  10. Tisdell, Clem, 1982. "Exploitation of Techniques That Decline in Effectiveness with Use," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 37(3), pages 428-37.
  11. Kessing, Sebastian & Nuscheler, Robert, 2003. "Monopoly pricing with negative network effects: the case of vaccines
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  12. Scott Morton, Fiona M., 2000. "Barriers to entry, brand advertising, and generic entry in the US pharmaceutical industry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(7), pages 1085-1104, October.
  13. Mark Gersovitz & Jeffrey S. Hammer, 2004. "The Economical Control of Infectious Diseases," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(492), pages 1-27, 01.
  14. Coast, J. & Smith, R. D. & Millar, M. R., 1998. "An economic perspective on policy to reduce antimicrobial resistance," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 29-38, January.
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