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Monopoly pricing with negative network effects: The case of vaccines

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  • Kessing, Sebastian G.
  • Nuscheler, Robert

Abstract

We study the market for vaccinations considering income heterogeneity on the demand side and monopoly power on the supply side. A monopolist has an incentive to exploit the external effect of vaccinations and leave the poor susceptible in order to increase the willingness to pay of the rich. Even the possibility to perfectly price discriminate does not remove this incentive. Pigouvian subsidies may even make things worse. Mandatory vaccination programs covering only the poor succeed in eradicating the disease. This offers an efficiency based rationale for distribution-oriented national or international public health interventions.
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  • Kessing, Sebastian G. & Nuscheler, Robert, 2006. "Monopoly pricing with negative network effects: The case of vaccines," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 1061-1069, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eecrev:v:50:y:2006:i:4:p:1061-1069
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mason, Robin, 2000. "Network externalities and the Coase conjecture," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1981-1992, December.
    2. Tomas Philipson, 1996. "Private Vaccination and Public Health: An Empirical Examination for U.S. Measles," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 31(3), pages 611-630.
    3. Philipson, Tomas, 2000. "Economic epidemiology and infectious diseases," Handbook of Health Economics,in: A. J. Culyer & J. P. Newhouse (ed.), Handbook of Health Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 33, pages 1761-1799 Elsevier.
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    5. Cabral, Luis M. B. & Salant, David J. & Woroch, Glenn A., 1999. "Monopoly pricing with network externalities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 199-214, February.
    6. Tomas Philipson & Stephane Mechoulan, 2003. "Intellectual Property & External Consumption Effects: Generalizations from Pharmaceutical Markets," NBER Working Papers 9598, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Geoffard, Pierre-Yves & Philipson, Tomas, 1997. "Disease Eradication: Private versus Public Vaccination," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(1), pages 222-230, March.
    8. Bensaid, Bernard & Lesne, Jean-Philippe, 1996. "Dynamic monopoly pricing with network externalities," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 837-855, October.
    9. Michael Kremer, 2002. "Pharmaceuticals and the Developing World," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(4), pages 67-90, Fall.
    10. Kessing, Sebastian G. & Nuscheler, Robert, 2006. "Monopoly pricing with negative network effects: The case of vaccines," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 1061-1069, May.
    11. Brito, Dagobert L. & Sheshinski, Eytan & Intriligator, Michael D., 1991. "Externalities and compulsary vaccinations," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 69-90, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Michael Kremer, Christopher M. Snyder & Christopher M. Snyder, 2013. "When Is Prevention More Profitable than Cure? The Impact of Time-Varying Consumer Heterogeneity - Working Paper 334," Working Papers 334, Center for Global Development.
    2. Michael Kremer & Christopher Snyder, 2013. "When is Prevention More Profitable than Cure?," CID Working Papers 252, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
    3. Michael Kremer & Christopher Snyder, 2015. "Preventives Versus Treatments," NBER Working Papers 21012, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Kessing, Sebastian G. & Nuscheler, Robert, 2006. "Monopoly pricing with negative network effects: The case of vaccines," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 1061-1069, May.
    5. Saak, Alexander E. & Hennessy, David A., 2016. "A model of reporting and controlling outbreaks by public health agencies:," IFPRI discussion papers 1529, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    6. Herrmann, Markus, 2010. "Monopoly pricing of an antibiotic subject to bacterial resistance," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 137-150, January.
    7. Stéphane Mechoulan, 2007. "Market structure and communicable diseases," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 40(2), pages 468-492, May.
    8. Michael Kremer & Christopher M. Snyder, 2013. "When Is Prevention More Profitable than Cure? The Impact of Time-Varying Consumer Heterogeneity," NBER Working Papers 18862, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Na Hao & Gervan Fearon, 2009. "Government Funding Policy Towards Communicable Diseases," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 37(2), pages 121-134, June.
    10. Proano, Ruben A. & Jacobson, Sheldon H. & Zhang, Wenbo, 2012. "Making combination vaccines more accessible to low-income countries: The antigen bundle pricing problem," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 53-64, January.
    11. Kremer, Michael & Snyder, Christopher, 2015. "Vaccines vs. Preventives," CEPR Discussion Papers 10474, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Pekka Sääskilahti, 2015. "Monopoly Pricing of Social Goods," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(3), pages 429-448, November.
    13. Terrence August & Tunay I. Tunca, 2006. "Network Software Security and User Incentives," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(11), pages 1703-1720, November.
    14. Nicolas Houy, 2013. "Are better vaccines really better? The case of a simple stochastic epidemic SIR model," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 207-216.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • D42 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Monopoly
    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • I11 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Analysis of Health Care Markets
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health

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