IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/jau/wpaper/2014-12.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Cost and revenue efficiency in Spanish banking: What distributions show

Author

Listed:
  • Mª Pilar García-Alcober

    (Department of Economics and business, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, Valencia, Spain)

  • Emili Tortosa-Ausina

    (IVIE, Valencia and Department of Economics, Universidad Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)

  • Diego Prior

    (Department of Business, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain)

  • Manuel Illueca

    (IVIE, Valencia and Department of Finance and Accounting, Universidad Jaume I, Castellón, Spain)

Abstract

The literature analyzing the efficiency of financial institutions has evolved rapidly over the last twenty years. Most research has focused on the input side, analyzing either cost, input technical efficiency or input allocative efficiency, whereas comparatively fewer studies have examined the revenue side. However, both sides are relevant when evaluating banks' performance. This article explicitly explores how serious it may be to confine the analysis to one side of banks' activities only, comparing the efficiencies yielded by either minimizing costs or maximizing revenues. We focus on the Spanish banking sector, which is currently undergoing a profound process of change and restructuring. The application shows how severely biased the analysis is when only a partial efficiency measurement is conducted. It also shows the growing relevance of the issue since the beginning of the financial crisis.

Suggested Citation

  • Mª Pilar García-Alcober & Emili Tortosa-Ausina & Diego Prior & Manuel Illueca, 2014. "Cost and revenue efficiency in Spanish banking: What distributions show," Working Papers 2014/12, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
  • Handle: RePEc:jau:wpaper:2014/12
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.doctreballeco.uji.es/wpficheros/Garcia_et_al_12_2014.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Diewert, W. Erwin & Fox, Kevin J., 2014. "Reference technology sets, Free Disposal Hulls and productivity decompositions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 238-242.
    2. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2000. "Statistical Inference in Nonparametric Frontier Models: The State of the Art," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 49-78, January.
    3. Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2002. "Exploring efficiency differences over time in the Spanish banking industry," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 139(3), pages 643-664, June.
    4. Kumbhakar, Subal C, et al, 2001. "The Effects of Deregulation on the Performance of Financial Institutions: The Case of Spanish Savings Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 101-120, February.
    5. Leibenstein, Harvey, 1978. "On the Basic Proposition of X-Efficiency Theory," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(2), pages 328-332, May.
    6. Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2003. "Nontraditional activities and bank efficiency revisited: a distributional analysis for Spanish financial institutions," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 371-395.
    7. Leibenstein, Harvey, 1978. "General X-Efficiency Theory and Economic Development," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195023800, November.
    8. Michael Devaney & William Weber, 2002. "Small-Business Lending and Profit Efficiency in Commercial Banking," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 22(3), pages 225-246, December.
    9. Diewert, Erwin & Fixler, Dennis & Zieschang, Kimberly, 2012. "Problems with the Measurement of Banking Services in a National Accounting Framework," Economics working papers erwin_diewert-2012-14, Vancouver School of Economics, revised 04 Apr 2012.
    10. Susanto Basu & Robert Inklaar & J. Christina Wang, 2011. "The Value Of Risk: Measuring The Service Output Of U.S. Commercial Banks," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(1), pages 226-245, January.
    11. Oleg Badunenko & Daniel J. Henderson & Subal C. Kumbhakar, 2012. "When, where and how to perform efficiency estimation," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 175(4), pages 863-892, October.
    12. Grifell-Tatje, E. & Lovell, C. A. K., 1997. "The sources of productivity change in Spanish banking," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 364-380, April.
    13. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
    14. Walter Briec & Kristiaan Kerstens & Philippe Venden Eeckaut, 2004. "Non-convex Technologies and Cost Functions: Definitions, Duality and Nonparametric Tests of Convexity," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 81(2), pages 155-192, February.
    15. Zvi Griliches, 1992. "Output Measurement in the Service Sectors," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gril92-1.
    16. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Shelton S. (ed.), 2008. "The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productivity Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183528, November.
    17. Ferrier, Gary D. & Lovell, C. A. Knox, 1990. "Measuring cost efficiency in banking : Econometric and linear programming evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 46(1-2), pages 229-245.
    18. J. Cummins & Hongmin Zi, 1998. "Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods: An Application to the U.S. Life Insurance Industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 10(2), pages 131-152, October.
    19. De Borger, Bruno & Kerstens, Kristiaan, 1996. "Cost efficiency of Belgian local governments: A comparative analysis of FDH, DEA, and econometric approaches," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 145-170, April.
    20. Bauer, Paul W. & Berger, Allen N. & Ferrier, Gary D. & Humphrey, David B., 1998. "Consistency Conditions for Regulatory Analysis of Financial Institutions: A Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 85-114, March.
    21. Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2002. "Bank Cost Efficiency and Output Specification," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 199-222, November.
    22. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    23. Rajiv D. Banker & Robert F. Conrad & Robert P. Strauss, 1986. "A Comparative Application of Data Envelopment Analysis and Translog Methods: An Illustrative Study of Hospital Production," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 32(1), pages 30-44, January.
    24. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    25. Park, B.U. & Simar, L. & Weiner, Ch., 2000. "The Fdh Estimator For Productivity Efficiency Scores," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 16(6), pages 855-877, December.
    26. Balaguer-Coll, Maria Teresa & Prior, Diego & Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2007. "On the determinants of local government performance: A two-stage nonparametric approach," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 425-451, February.
    27. Casu, Barbara & Girardone, Claudia, 2010. "Integration and efficiency convergence in EU banking markets," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 260-267, October.
    28. Berger, Allen N. & Hunter, William C. & Timme, Stephen G., 1993. "The efficiency of financial institutions: A review and preview of research past, present and future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 221-249, April.
    29. Georgios E. Chortareas & Claudia Girardone & Alexia Ventouri, 2011. "Financial Frictions, Bank Efficiency and Risk: Evidence from the Eurozone," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(1-2), pages 259-287, January.
    30. Robert A. Eisenbeis & Gary D. Ferrier & Simon H. Kwan, 1999. "The informativeness of stochastic frontier and programming frontier efficiency scores: Cost efficiency and other measures of bank holding company performance," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 99-23, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    31. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Measurement and Efficiency Issues in Commercial Banking," NBER Chapters, in: Output Measurement in the Service Sectors, pages 245-300, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    32. Antonio Colangelo & Robert Inklaar, 2012. "Bank Output Measurement In The Euro Area: A Modified Approach," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 58(1), pages 142-165, March.
    33. Resti, Andrea, 1997. "Evaluating the cost-efficiency of the Italian Banking System: What can be learned from the joint application of parametric and non-parametric techniques," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 221-250, February.
    34. Santiago Carbó Valverde & David Humphrey & Rafael López del Paso, 2007. "Opening the black box: Finding the source of cost inefficiency," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 209-220, June.
    35. Joaquin Maudos & Jose Pastor, 2001. "Cost and profit efficiency in banking: an international comparison of Europe, Japan and the USA," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(6), pages 383-387.
    36. Drake, Leigh & Weyman-Jones, Thomas G, 1996. "Productive and Allocative Inefficiencies in U.K. Building Societies: A Comparison of Non-parametric and Stochastic Frontier Techniques," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 64(1), pages 22-37, March.
    37. Vivas, Ana Lozano, 1997. "Profit efficiency for Spanish savings banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 381-394, April.
    38. van den Broeck, Julien & Koop, Gary & Osiewalski, Jacek & Steel, Mark F. J., 1994. "Stochastic frontier models : A Bayesian perspective," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 273-303, April.
    39. Miller, Stephen M. & Noulas, Athanasios G., 1996. "The technical efficiency of large bank production," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 495-509, April.
    40. Dominique Deprins & Léopold Simar & Henry Tulkens, 2006. "Measuring Labor-Efficiency in Post Offices," Springer Books, in: Parkash Chander & Jacques Drèze & C. Knox Lovell & Jack Mintz (ed.), Public goods, environmental externalities and fiscal competition, chapter 0, pages 285-309, Springer.
    41. Aragon, Y. & Daouia, A. & Thomas-Agnan, C., 2005. "Nonparametric Frontier Estimation: A Conditional Quantile-Based Approach," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 358-389, April.
    42. Grifell-Tatje, E. & Lovell, C. A. K., 1996. "Deregulation and productivity decline: The case of Spanish bavings banks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1281-1303, June.
    43. Krüger, Jens J., 2012. "A Monte Carlo study of old and new frontier methods for efficiency measurement," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 222(1), pages 137-148.
    44. Manuel Illueca & Lars Norden & Gregory F. Udell, 2014. "Liberalization and Risk-Taking: Evidence from Government-Controlled Banks," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 18(4), pages 1217-1257.
    45. Luis R. Murillo‐Zamorano, 2004. "Economic Efficiency and Frontier Techniques," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 33-77, February.
    46. Manuel Illueca & José Pastor & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2009. "The effects of geographic expansion on the productivity of Spanish savings banks," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 119-143, October.
    47. M.A. Marco Gual & I. Moya Clemente, 1999. "Inefficiency in the Spanish Cooperative Banking Sector," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(4), pages 621-637, December.
    48. Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2002. "Cost Efficiency and Product Mix Clusters across the Spanish Banking Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 20(2), pages 163-181, March.
    49. Stennek, Johan, 2000. "Competition increases x-efficiency: A limited liability mechanism," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(9), pages 1727-1744, October.
    50. J. Maudos & J. M. Pastor, 2003. "Cost and profit efficiency in the Spanish banking sector (1985-1996): a non-parametric approach," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 1-12.
    51. Rolf Fare & Shawna Grosskopf & William Weber, 2004. "The effect of risk-based capital requirements on profit efficiency in banking," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(15), pages 1731-1743.
    52. Daouia, Abdelaati & Simar, Leopold, 2007. "Nonparametric efficiency analysis: A multivariate conditional quantile approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 140(2), pages 375-400, October.
    53. Crespi, Rafel & Garcia-Cestona, Miguel A. & Salas, Vicente, 2004. "Governance mechanisms in Spanish banks. Does ownership matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2311-2330, October.
    54. Cazals, Catherine & Florens, Jean-Pierre & Simar, Leopold, 2002. "Nonparametric frontier estimation: a robust approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 1-25, January.
    55. Resti, Andrea, 2000. "Efficiency measurement for multi-product industries: A comparison of classic and recent techniques based on simulated data," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 121(3), pages 559-578, March.
    56. Peter Bogetoft & Lars Otto, 2011. "Benchmarking with DEA, SFA, and R," International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, Springer, number 978-1-4419-7961-2, December.
    57. Fethi, Meryem Duygun & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2010. "Assessing bank efficiency and performance with operational research and artificial intelligence techniques: A survey," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 204(2), pages 189-198, July.
    58. Sturm, Jan-Egbert & Williams, Barry, 2008. "Characteristics determining the efficiency of foreign banks in Australia," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 2346-2360, November.
    59. Grifell-Tatje, E. & Lovell, C. A. Knox, 2004. "Decomposing the dividend," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 500-518, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Omneya Abdelsalam & Sabur Mollah & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2018. "Political connection and bank in(efficiency)," Working Papers 2018-11, Swansea University, School of Management.
    2. Diego Prior & Emili Tortosa-Ausina & María Pilar García-Alcober & Manuel Illueca, 2019. "Profit efficiency and earnings quality: Evidence from the Spanish banking industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 153-174, June.
    3. Emili Tortosa-Ausina & Diego Prior Jiménez, 2014. "Earnings quality and performance in the banking industry: A profit frontier approach," Working Papers 1405, Departament Empresa, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, revised Nov 2014.
    4. Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2003. "Nontraditional activities and bank efficiency revisited: a distributional analysis for Spanish financial institutions," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 371-395.
    5. Sunil Kumar, 2013. "Banking reforms and the evolution of cost efficiency in Indian public sector banks," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 143-182, May.
    6. Luis R. Murillo‐Zamorano, 2004. "Economic Efficiency and Frontier Techniques," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 33-77, February.
    7. Tortosa-Ausina, Emili & Grifell-Tatje, Emili & Armero, Carmen & Conesa, David, 2008. "Sensitivity analysis of efficiency and Malmquist productivity indices: An application to Spanish savings banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 184(3), pages 1062-1084, February.
    8. Mª Pilar García-Alcober & Manuel Illueca & Diego Prior & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2016. "Risk-taking behavior, earnings quality, and performance in Spanish banking: A profit frontier approach," Working Papers 2016/19, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
    9. Thieme, Claudio & Prior, Diego & Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2013. "A multilevel decomposition of school performance using robust nonparametric frontier techniques," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 104-121.
    10. Fakarudin Kamarudin & Bany Ariffin Amin Nordin & Junaina Muhammad & Mohamad Ali Abdul Hamid, 2014. "Cost, Revenue and Profit Efficiency of Islamic and Conventional Banking Sector: Empirical Evidence from Gulf Cooperative Council Countries," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 15(1), pages 1-24, March.
    11. Bergendahl, Goran & Lindblom, Ted, 2008. "Evaluating the performance of Swedish savings banks according to service efficiency," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 185(3), pages 1663-1673, March.
    12. Grifell-Tatjé, E., 2011. "Profit, productivity and distribution: Differences across organizational forms - The case of Spanish banks," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 72-83, June.
    13. Mai, Nhat Chi, 2015. "Efficiency of the banking system in Vietnam under financial liberalization," OSF Preprints qsf6d, Center for Open Science.
    14. Emili Tortosa Ausina & Diego Prior & María Teresa Balaguer-Coll, 2006. "Decentralization And Effiency In Spanish Local Goverment," Working Papers. Serie EC 2006-02, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    15. Chu, Sing Fat & Lim, Guan Hua, 1998. "Share performance and profit efficiency of banks in an oligopolistic market: evidence from Singapore," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(2-3), pages 155-168, September.
    16. Franz R. Hahn, 2005. "Determinants of Bank Profitability in Austria. A Micro-Macro Approach," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 25688, June.
    17. Sufian, Fadzlan & Abdul Majid, Muhamed Zulkhibri, 2007. "Bank Ownership, Characteristics and Performance: A Comparative Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Islamic Banks in Malaysia," MPRA Paper 12131, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 01 Jun 2007.
    18. Isabel Narbón-Perpiñá & Maria Balaguer-Coll & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2019. "Evaluating local government performance in times of crisis," Local Government Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(1), pages 64-100, January.
    19. Manthos Delis & Anastasia Koutsomanoli-Fillipaki & Christos Staikouras & Gerogiannaki Katerina, 2009. "Evaluating cost and profit efficiency: a comparison of parametric and nonparametric methodologies," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 191-202.
    20. Bauer, Paul W. & Berger, Allen N. & Ferrier, Gary D. & Humphrey, David B., 1998. "Consistency Conditions for Regulatory Analysis of Financial Institutions: A Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 85-114, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bank; cost efficiency; revenue efficiency; kernel smoothing;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L50 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jau:wpaper:2014/12. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ueujies.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: María Aurora Garcia Gallego (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ueujies.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.