IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ivi/wpasec/2002-30.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Sensitivity Analysis Of Efficiency And Malmquist Productivity Indices: An Application To Spanish Savings Banks

Author

Listed:
  • Emili Tortosa Ausina

    (Universitat Jaume I)

Abstract

Hypothesis testing and statistical precision in the context of nonparametric efficiency and productivity measurement have been investigated since the early 1990s. Recent contributions focus on this matter through the use of resampling methods?i.e., bootstrapping techniques. However, empirical evidence is still practically non-existent. This gap is more noticeable in the case of banking efficiency studies, where the literature is immense. In this paper, we explore productivity growth and productive efficiency for Spanish savings banks over the (initial) post-deregulation period 1992?1998 using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and bootstrapping techniques. Results show that productivity growth has occurred, mainly due to improvement in production possibilities, and that mean efficiency has remained fairly constant over time. The bootstrap analysis yields further evidence, as for many firms productivity growth, or decline, is not statistically significant. With regard to efficiency measurement, the bootstrap reveals that the disparities in the original efficiency scores of some firms are lessened to a great extent. Desde principios de los años noventa ha habido avances notables en el contraste de hipótesis dentro del contexto de la medición de la eficiencia y la productividad mediante técnicas paramétricas. Las contribuciones más recientes han enfocado el tema a través de métodos de remuestreo -conocidos en la literatura como técnicas bootstrap-. Sin embargo, prácticamente no ha habido aplicaciones, algo también patente en el estudio de la eficiencia de la empresa bancaria. En este artículo, analizamos la eficiencia productiva y el crecimiento de la productividad de las cajas de ahorro españolas durante el periodo 1992-1998 a través de técnicas no paramétricas (DEA) y de técnicas bootstrap, con el fin de poder realizar inferencia estadística. Los resultados indican que la productividad ha aumentado, principalmente debido a una mejora en las posibilidades de producción, mientras que la eficiencia promedio no ha variado sustancialmente. El análisis bootstrap revela que, en el caso de la productividad, para muchas empresas su aumento o disminución no es estadísticamente significativo. En cuanto a la eficiencia, muestra que las diferencias entre empresas individuales se reducen de manera notable cuando consideramos intervalos de confianza.

Suggested Citation

  • Emili Tortosa Ausina, 2002. "Sensitivity Analysis Of Efficiency And Malmquist Productivity Indices: An Application To Spanish Savings Banks," Working Papers. Serie EC 2002-30, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  • Handle: RePEc:ivi:wpasec:2002-30
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.ivie.es/downloads/docs/wpasec/wpasec-2002-30.pdf
    File Function: Fisrt version / Primera version, 2002
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2000. "Statistical Inference in Nonparametric Frontier Models: The State of the Art," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 49-78, January.
    2. X. M. Gonzalez & D. Miles, 2002. "Statistical precision of DEA: a bootstrap application to Spanish public services," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 127-132.
    3. Ferrier, Gary D. & Grosskopf, Shawna & Hayes, Kathy J. & Yaisawarng, Suthathip, 1993. "Economies of diversification in the banking industry : A frontier approach," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 229-249, April.
    4. Joaquín Maudos, 1996. "Eficiencia, cambio técnico y productividad en el sector bancario español: una aproximación de frontera estocástica," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 20(3), pages 339-358, September.
    5. Kumbhakar, Subal C, et al, 2001. "The Effects of Deregulation on the Performance of Financial Institutions: The Case of Spanish Savings Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 101-120, February.
    6. Rogers, Kevin E., 1998. "Nontraditional activities and the efficiency of US commercial banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 467-482, May.
    7. Grifell-Tatje, E. & Lovell, C. A. K., 1997. "The sources of productivity change in Spanish banking," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 364-380, April.
    8. Ana Lozano-Vivas, 1998. "Efficiency and technical change for Spanish banks," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 289-300.
    9. Kreps,David M. & Wallis,Kenneth F. (ed.), 1997. "Advances in Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521589819.
    10. David Humphrey, 1993. "Cost and technical change: Effects from bank deregulation," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 9-34, June.
    11. Gorton, Gary & Rosen, Richard, 1995. "Corporate Control, Portfolio Choice, and the Decline of Banking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1377-1420, December.
    12. Amel, Dean & Barnes, Colleen & Panetta, Fabio & Salleo, Carmelo, 2004. "Consolidation and efficiency in the financial sector: A review of the international evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2493-2519, October.
    13. Berg, Sigbjorn Atle & Forsund, Finn R & Jansen, Eilev S, 1992. " Malmquist Indices of Productivity Growth during the Deregulation of Norwegian Banking, 1980-89," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 94(0), pages 211-228, Supplemen.
    14. C.A. Lovell, 2000. "Editor's Introduction," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 5-6, January.
    15. Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2002. "Bank Cost Efficiency and Output Specification," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 199-222, November.
    16. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    17. Xavier Freixas & Anthony M. Santomero, 2002. "An overall perspective on banking regulation," Working Papers 02-1, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    18. Gary Ferrier & Joseph Hirschberg, 1999. "Can We Bootstrap DEA Scores?," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 81-92, February.
    19. Joaquin Maudos, 1998. "Market structure and performance in Spanish banking using a direct measure of efficiency," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 191-200.
    20. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 1999. "Some Problems with the Ferrier/Hirschberg Bootstrap Idea," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 67-80, February.
    21. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Shelton S. (ed.), 1993. "The Measurement of Productive Efficiency: Techniques and Applications," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195072181, November.
    22. Kreps,David M. & Wallis,Kenneth F. (ed.), 1997. "Advances in Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications 3 Volume Paperback Set," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521581394.
    23. Wheelock, David C & Wilson, Paul W, 1999. "Technical Progress, Inefficiency, and Productivity Change in U.S. Banking, 1984-1993," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 212-234, May.
    24. Mukherjee, Kankana & Ray, Subhash C. & Miller, Stephen M., 2001. "Productivity growth in large US commercial banks: The initial post-deregulation experience," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 913-939, May.
    25. Fare, Rolf & Shawna Grosskopf & Mary Norris & Zhongyang Zhang, 1994. "Productivity Growth, Technical Progress, and Efficiency Change in Industrialized Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 66-83, March.
    26. Rolf Färe & Shawna Grosskopf & William L. Weber, 1989. "Measuring School District Performance," Public Finance Review, , vol. 17(4), pages 409-428, October.
    27. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 1999. "Estimating and bootstrapping Malmquist indices," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 459-471, June.
    28. Joaquin Maudos & Jose Pastor & Francisco Perez, 2002. "Competition and efficiency in the Spanish banking sector: the importance of specialization," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(7), pages 505-516.
    29. Vivas, Ana Lozano, 1997. "Profit efficiency for Spanish savings banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 381-394, April.
    30. Rolf Färe & Gerald Whittaker, 1995. "An Intermediate Input Model Of Dairy Production Using Complex Survey Data," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 201-213, May.
    31. Kreps,David M. & Wallis,Kenneth F. (ed.), 1997. "Advances in Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521589833.
    32. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 1998. "Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(1), pages 49-61, January.
    33. Prior, Diego, 2003. "Long- and short-run non-parametric cost frontier efficiency: An application to Spanish savings banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 655-671, April.
    34. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 1999. "Of Course We Can Bootstrap DEA Scores! But Does It Mean Anything? Logic Trumps Wishful Thinking," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 93-97, February.
    35. Gilbert, R. Alton & Wilson, Paul W., 1998. "Effects of Deregulation on the Productivity of Korean Banks," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 133-155, March.
    36. Vives, Xavier, 1991. "Regulatory reform in European banking," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(2-3), pages 505-515, April.
    37. Grifell-Tatje, E. & Lovell, C. A. K., 1996. "Deregulation and productivity decline: The case of Spanish bavings banks," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1281-1303, June.
    38. Vives, Xavier, 1990. "Deregulation and competition in Spanish banking," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(2-3), pages 403-411, May.
    39. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2002. "Non-parametric tests of returns to scale," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 139(1), pages 115-132, May.
    40. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "The Economic Theory of Index Numbers and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1393-1414, November.
    41. Joel L. Horowitz, 1996. "Bootstrap Methods in Econometrics: Theory and Numerical Performance," Econometrics 9602009, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Mar 1996.
    42. Oulton,Nicholas & O'Mahony,Mary, 1994. "Productivity and Growth," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521453455.
    43. Ana Lozano-Vivas & Jesús Pastor & José Pastor, 2002. "An Efficiency Comparison of European Banking Systems Operating under Different Environmental Conditions," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 18(1), pages 59-77, July.
    44. O. B. Olesen & N. C. Petersen, 1995. "Chance Constrained Efficiency Evaluation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 41(3), pages 442-457, March.
    45. José Manuel Pastor Monsálvez, 1995. "Eficiencia, Cambio Productivo Y Cambio Técnico En Los Bancos Y Cajas De Ahorro Españolas: Un Análisis Frontera No Paramétrico," Working Papers. Serie EC 1995-09, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    46. Gary Ferrier & Joseph Hirschberg, 1997. "Bootstrapping Confidence Intervals for Linear Programming Efficiency Scores: With an Illustration Using Italian Banking Data," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 19-33, March.
    47. Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2002. "Cost Efficiency and Product Mix Clusters across the Spanish Banking Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 20(2), pages 163-181, March.
    48. J. Maudos & J. M. Pastor, 2003. "Cost and profit efficiency in the Spanish banking sector (1985-1996): a non-parametric approach," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(1), pages 1-12.
    49. Rogers, Kevin & SinkeyJr., Joseph F., 1999. "An analysis of nontraditional activities at U.S. commercial banks," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 25-39, June.
    50. Dyson, R. G. & Allen, R. & Camanho, A. S. & Podinovski, V. V. & Sarrico, C. S. & Shale, E. A., 2001. "Pitfalls and protocols in DEA," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 132(2), pages 245-259, July.
    51. Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2002. "Financial costs, operating costs, and specialization of Spanish banking firms as distribution dynamics," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(17), pages 2165-2176.
    52. Crespi, Rafel & Garcia-Cestona, Miguel A. & Salas, Vicente, 2004. "Governance mechanisms in Spanish banks. Does ownership matter?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2311-2330, October.
    53. Kreps,David M. & Wallis,Kenneth F. (ed.), 1997. "Advances in Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521589826.
    54. Rajiv D. Banker, 1993. "Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(10), pages 1265-1273, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tortosa-Ausina, Emili, 2003. "Nontraditional activities and bank efficiency revisited: a distributional analysis for Spanish financial institutions," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(4), pages 371-395.
    2. C Murillo-Melchor & J M Pastor & E Tortosa-Ausina, 2010. "A bootstrap approach to analyse productivity growth in European banking," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 61(12), pages 1729-1745, December.
    3. Mª Pilar García-Alcober & Emili Tortosa-Ausina & Diego Prior & Manuel Illueca, 2014. "Cost and revenue efficiency in Spanish banking: What distributions show," Working Papers 2014/12, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
    4. Ihsan Isik & Emin Akcaoglu, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of Productivity Developments in "Traditional Banks" : The Initial Post-Liberalization Experience," Central Bank Review, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, vol. 6(1), pages 1-36.
    5. Casu, Barbara & Girardone, Claudia & Molyneux, Philip, 2004. "Productivity change in European banking: A comparison of parametric and non-parametric approaches," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(10), pages 2521-2540, October.
    6. Kent Matthews & Nina Zhang, 2009. "Bank Productivity in China 1997-2007: An Exercise in Measurement," Working Papers 252009, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
    7. Garcia-Cestona, Miguel & Surroca, Jordi, 2008. "Multiple goals and ownership structure: Effects on the performance of Spanish savings banks," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 187(2), pages 582-599, June.
    8. Fethi, Meryem Duygun & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2010. "Assessing bank efficiency and performance with operational research and artificial intelligence techniques: A survey," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 204(2), pages 189-198, July.
    9. Fernández, Ana Isabel & Gascón, Fernando & González , Eduardo, 2001. "Economic Efficiency and Value Maximization in Banking Firms," Efficiency Series Papers 2001/11, University of Oviedo, Department of Economics, Oviedo Efficiency Group (OEG).
    10. Kumbhakar, Subal C, et al, 2001. "The Effects of Deregulation on the Performance of Financial Institutions: The Case of Spanish Savings Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 101-120, February.
    11. Sunil Kumar, 2013. "Banking reforms and the evolution of cost efficiency in Indian public sector banks," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 46(2), pages 143-182, May.
    12. Luis R. Murillo‐Zamorano, 2004. "Economic Efficiency and Frontier Techniques," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 33-77, February.
    13. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B., 1997. "Efficiency of financial institutions: International survey and directions for future research," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 175-212, April.
    14. Sebastian Kohl & Jan Schoenfelder & Andreas Fügener & Jens O. Brunner, 2019. "The use of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in healthcare with a focus on hospitals," Health Care Management Science, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 245-286, June.
    15. Manuel Illueca & José Pastor & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2009. "The effects of geographic expansion on the productivity of Spanish savings banks," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 119-143, October.
    16. Christian Castro & Jorge E. Galán, 2019. "Drivers of Productivity in the Spanish Banking Sector: Recent Evidence," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 115-141, June.
    17. Arjomandi, Amir & Valadkhani, Abbas & O’Brien, Martin, 2014. "Analysing banks’ intermediation and operational performance using the Hicks–Moorsteen TFP index: The case of Iran," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 111-125.
    18. Matthews, Kent & Zhang, Nina (Xu), 2010. "Bank productivity in China 1997-2007: Measurement and convergence," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 617-628, December.
    19. Casu, Barbara & Ferrari, Alessandra & Girardone, Claudia & Wilson, John O.S., 2016. "Integration, productivity and technological spillovers: Evidence for eurozone banking industries," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 255(3), pages 971-983.
    20. Kao, Chiang & Liu, Shiang-Tai, 2014. "Measuring performance improvement of Taiwanese commercial banks under uncertainty," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 235(3), pages 755-764.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bootstrap; data envelopment analysis; efficiency; productivity; savings bank bootstrap; técnicas no paramétricas; eficiencia; productividad; cajas de ahorro.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C30 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - General
    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • L5 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ivi:wpasec:2002-30. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ievages.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Departamento de Edición (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/ievages.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.