IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Consolidation and efficiency in the financial sector: a review of the international evidence

  • Dean Amel

    (Federal Reserve Board, Washington DC)

  • Colleen Barnes

    (Department of Finance, Ottawa, Canada)

  • Fabio Panetta

    ()

    (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department)

  • Carmelo Salleo

    (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department)

Registered author(s):

    In response to fundamental changes in regulation and technology, the financial industry around the world is undergoing an unprecedented wave of consolidation. A growing body of empirical literature has attempted to measure the efficiency gains from M&As; however there is little sense of how the results might depend on the country, industry and time period analysed. In this paper we review critically works that cover the main sectors of the financial industry (commercial and investment banks, insurance and asset management companies) in the major industrialized countries over the last twenty years, searching for common patterns that transcend national and sectoral peculiarities. We find that consolidation in the financial sector is beneficial up to a relatively small size in order to reap economies of scale, but there is little evidence that mergers yield economies of scope or gains in managerial efficiency.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/temi-discussione/2002/2002-0464/tema_464_02.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area in its series Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) with number 464.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: Dec 2002
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_464_02
    Contact details of provider: Postal: Via Nazionale, 91 - 00184 Roma
    Web page: http://www.bancaditalia.it

    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Allen N. Berger & J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1995. "The Coexistence of Multiple Distributions Systems for Financial Services: The Case of Property-Liability Insurance," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 95-13, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    2. Geraldine Kaye, 1991. "Economies of Scale in UK Life Insurance Companies: An Empirical Approach," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 16(3), pages 302-314, July.
    3. Allen N. Berger & Gerald A. Hanweck & David B. Humphrey, 1986. "Competitive viability in banking: scale, scope, and product mix economies," Research Papers in Banking and Financial Economics 82, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Altunbas, Yener & Molyneux, Philip & Thornton, John, 1997. "Big-Bank Mergers in Europe: An Analysis of the Cost Implications," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(254), pages 317-29, May.
    5. Hanweck, Gerald A. & Hogan, Arthur M. B., 1996. "The structure of the property/casualty insurance industry," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 141-155, May.
    6. David A. Latzko, 1999. "Economies Of Scale In Mutual Fund Administration," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 22(3), pages 331-339, 09.
    7. Shaffer, Sherrill, 1993. "A Test of Competition in Canadian Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 25(1), pages 49-61, February.
    8. Berger, Allen N. & Demsetz, Rebecca S. & Strahan, Philip E., 1999. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: Causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 135-194, February.
    9. Dario Focarelli, 2002. "Bootstrap bias-correction procedure in estimating long-run relationships from dynamic panels, with an application to money demand in the euro area," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 440, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    10. Peristiani, Stavros, 1997. "Do Mergers Improve the X-Efficiency and Scale Efficiency of U.S. Banks? Evidence from the 1980s," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 326-37, August.
    11. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B. & Pulley, Lawrence B., 1996. "Do consumers pay for one-stop banking? Evidence from an alternative revenue function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1601-1621, November.
    12. Gorton, Gary & Rosen, Richard, 1995. " Corporate Control, Portfolio Choice, and the Decline of Banking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1377-1420, December.
    13. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    14. Olivier Donni & Fabienne Fecher, 1997. "Efficiency and Productivity of the Insurance Industry in the OECD Countries," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 22(4), pages 523-535, October.
    15. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Hanweck, Gerald A. & Keenan, Michael & Young, Allan, 1991. "Economies of scale and scope in the securities industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 91-107, February.
    16. Noulas, Athanasios G & Ray, Subhash C & Miller, Stephen M, 1990. "Returns to Scale and Input Substitution for Large U.S. Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(1), pages 94-108, February.
    17. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung & Hesna Genay & Gregory F. Udell, 1999. "Globalization of financial institutions: evidence from cross-border banking performance," Working Paper Series WP-99-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    18. Luigi Prosperetti, 1991. "Economies of Scale in Italian Non-Life Insurance*," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 16(3), pages 282-292, July.
    19. Allen N. Berger & Nathan H. Miller & Mitchell A. Petersen & Raghuran G. Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Does function follow organizational form? evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Proceedings 815, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    20. Latzko, David A, 1999. "Economies of Scale in Mutual Fund Administration," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 22(3), pages 331-39, Fall.
    21. Berger, Allen N. & Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A. & Zi, Hongmin, 2000. "Conglomeration versus Strategic Focus: Evidence from the Insurance Industry," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 323-362, October.
    22. Dermine, Jean & Roller, Lars-Hendrik, 1992. "Economies of scale and scope in French mutual funds," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 83-93, March.
    23. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester & Moon Choo-Geol, 2000. "Are scale economies in banking elusive or illusive? evidence obtained by incorporating capital structure and risk-taking into models of bank production," Proceedings 700, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    24. Cara S. Lown & Carol L. Osler & Philip E. Strahan & Amir Sufi, 2000. "The changing landscape of the financial services industry: what lies ahead?," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 39-54.
    25. Allen Berger & Timothy Hannan, 1994. "The Efficiency Cost of Market Power in the Banking Industry: A Test of the 'Quiet Life' and Related Hypotheses," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 94-29, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    26. Ruthenberg, David & Elias, Ricky, 1996. "Cost economies and interest rate margins in a unified European banking market," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 231-249, August.
    27. Berger, Allen N. & Hancock, Diana & Humphrey, David B., 1993. "Bank efficiency derived from the profit function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 317-347, April.
    28. Joseph P. Hughes & Loretta J. Mester, 1997. "Bank capitalization and cost: evidence of scale economies in risk management and signaling," Working Papers 96-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    29. Jalal D. Akhavein & Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1997. "The effects of megamergers on efficiency and prices: evidence from a bank profit function," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-9, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    30. Angelini, Paolo & Cetorelli, Nicola, 2003. " The Effects of Regulatory Reform on Competition in the Banking Industry," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(5), pages 663-84, October.
    31. Kwast, Myron L., 1989. "The impact of underwriting and dealing on bank returns and risks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 101-125, March.
    32. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    33. J. David Cummins & Sharon Tennyson & Mary A. Weiss, 1998. "Consolidation and Efficiency in the U.S. Life Insurance Industry," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 98-08, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    34. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    35. Allen N. Berger & Anthony Saunders & Joseph M. Scalise & Gregory F. Udell, 1997. "The effects of bank mergers and acquisitions on small business lending," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-28, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    36. DeLong, Gayle L., 2001. "Stockholder gains from focusing versus diversifying bank mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 221-252, February.
    37. Sathye, Milind, 2001. "X-efficiency in Australian banking: An empirical investigation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 613-630, March.
    38. Wagenvoort, Rien & Schure, Paul, 1999. "Economies of Scale and Efficiency in European Banking: New Evidence," Economic and Financial Reports 1999/1, European Investment Bank, Economics Department.
    39. Pilloff, Steven J, 1996. "Performance Changes and Shareholder Wealth Creation Associated with Mergers of Publicly Traded Banking Institutions," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(3), pages 294-310, August.
    40. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1993. "Efficiency effects of horizontal (in-market) bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 411-422, April.
    41. McKillop, Donal G. & Glass, J. Colin & Morikawa, Yukio, 1996. "The composite cost function and efficiency in giant Japanese banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1651-1671, December.
    42. Bliss, Richard T. & Rosen, Richard J., 2001. "CEO compensation and bank mergers," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 107-138, July.
    43. F Fecher & S Perelman & P Pestieau, 1991. "Scale Economies and Performance in the French Insurance Industry," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 16(3), pages 315-326, July.
    44. Yuengert, Andrew M., 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance: Estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 483-496, April.
    45. Arthur B. Kennickell & Martha Starr-McCluer & Annika E. Sunden, 1997. "Family finances in the U.S.: recent evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jan, pages 1-24.
    46. Rhoades, Stephen A., 1998. "The efficiency effects of bank mergers: An overview of case studies of nine mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 273-291, March.
    47. Altunbas, Yener & Liu, Ming-Hau & Molyneux, Philip & Seth, Rama, 2000. "Efficiency and risk in Japanese banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(10), pages 1605-1628, October.
    48. Timothy H. Hannan & John D. Wolken, 1989. "Returns to bidders and targets in the acquisition process: evidence from the banking industry," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 64, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    49. Houston, Joel F & Ryngaert, Michael D, 1997. " Equity Issuance and Adverse Selection: A Direct Test Using Conditional Stock Offers," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 197-219, March.
    50. Gregor Andrade & Mark Mitchell & Erik Stafford, 2001. "New Evidence and Perspectives on Mergers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 103-120, Spring.
    51. Dietsch, Michel & Lozano-Vivas, Ana, 2000. "How the environment determines banking efficiency: A comparison between French and Spanish industries," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 985-1004, June.
    52. Myron L. Kwast & Martha Starr-McCluer & John D. Wolken, 1997. "Market definition and the analysis of antitrust in banking," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-52, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    53. Prager, Robin A & Hannan, Timothy H, 1998. "Do Substantial Horizontal Mergers Generate Significant Price Effects? Evidence from the Banking Industry," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(4), pages 433-52, December.
    54. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Research Paper 9308, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    55. Boyd, John H. & Graham, Stanley L. & Hewitt, R. Shawn, 1993. "Bank holding company mergers with nonbank financial firms: Effects on the risk of failure," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 43-63, February.
    56. Victor Mendes & Joao Rebelo, 1999. "Productive efficiency, technological change and productivity in Portuguese banking," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(5), pages 513-521.
    57. Fukuyama, Hirofumi, 1997. "Investigating productive efficiency and productivity changes of Japanese life insurance companies," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 5(4), pages 481-509, September.
    58. Berger, Allen N. & Mester, Loretta J., 1997. "Inside the black box: What explains differences in the efficiencies of financial institutions?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(7), pages 895-947, July.
    59. Houston, Joel F. & James, Christopher M. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 2001. "Where do merger gains come from? Bank mergers from the perspective of insiders and outsiders," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 285-331, May.
    60. Haynes, Michelle & Thompson, Steve, 1999. "The productivity effects of bank mergers: Evidence from the UK building societies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 825-846, May.
    61. Paola Sapienza, 2002. "The Effects of Banking Mergers on Loan Contracts," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 329-367, 02.
    62. Lang, Gunter & Welzel, Peter, 1996. "Efficiency and technical progress in banking Empirical results for a panel of German cooperative banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 1003-1023, July.
    63. Esho, Neil, 2001. "The determinants of cost efficiency in cooperative financial institutions: Australian evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 941-964, May.
    64. Houston, Joel F. & Ryngaert, Michael D., 1994. "The overall gains from large bank mergers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 1155-1176, December.
    65. Allen N. Berger & Robert De Young & Gregory F. Udell, 2001. "Efficiency Barriers to the Consolidation of the European Financial Services Industry," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 7(1), pages 117-130.
    66. Gardner, Lisa A. & Grace, Martin F., 1993. "X-Efficiency in the US life insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 497-510, April.
    67. Charles Calomiris & Jason Karceski, 2000. "Is the Bank Merger Wave of the 1990s Efficient? Lessons from Nine Case Studies," NBER Chapters, in: Mergers and Productivity, pages 93-178 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    68. Dario Focarelli & Fabio Panetta, 2002. "Are Mergers Beneficial to Consumers? Evidence from the Market for Bank Deposits," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 448, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    69. Aruna Srinivasan, 1992. "Are there cost savings from bank mergers?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Mar, pages 17-28.
    70. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
    71. Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tehranian, Hassan, 1992. "Changes in corporate performance associated with bank acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-234, April.
    72. Cybo-Ottone, Alberto & Murgia, Maurizio, 2000. "Mergers and shareholder wealth in European banking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 831-859, June.
    73. J. David Cummins & Hongmin Zi, 1997. "Comparison of Frontier Efficiency Methods: An Application to the U.S. Life Insurance Industry," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 97-03, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
    74. Allen, Linda & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "Operational efficiency in banking: An international comparison," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 655-672, May.
    75. Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A., 1993. "Measuring cost efficiency in the property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 463-481, April.
    76. Jon Breslaw & James McIntosh, 1997. "Scale Efficiency in Canadian Trust Companies," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 281-292, August.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_464_02. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.