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Smoking Bans, Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes

Author

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  • Bharadwaj, Prashant

    () (University of California, San Diego)

  • Johnsen, Julian V.

    () (University of Bergen)

  • Loken, Katrine Vellesen

    () (Norwegian School of Economics)

Abstract

An important externality of smoking is the harm it might cause to those who do not smoke. This paper examines the impact on birth outcomes of children of female workers who are affected by smoking bans in the workplace. Analyzing a 2004 law change in Norway that extended smoking restrictions to bars and restaurants, we find that children of female workers in restaurants and bars born after the law change saw significantly lower rates of being born below the very low birth weight (VLBW) threshold and were less likely to be born pre-term. Using detailed data on smoking status during pregnancy, we find that relative to the control group, most of the benefits arise from changes in smoking behavior of the mother; the effect of second hand smoke exposure on birth outcomes in this formulation appears to be quite small. However, we find suggestive evidence of substituting behavior, i.e. a greater likelihood of smoking at home among fathers, since children born to male workers in restaurants and bars after this law change appear to have slightly worse outcomes. Using individual tax data, we find that the law change did not result in changes in earnings or employment opportunities for those affected, thus suggesting that the effects seen are likely a direct result of changes in smoke exposure in utero. Using a twins based analysis, we link very low birth weight status to adult labor force participation and suggest that via the improvements in birth weight alone, the smoking restriction law in Norway could result in a 0.2 percentage point increase in full time employment by age 28.

Suggested Citation

  • Bharadwaj, Prashant & Johnsen, Julian V. & Loken, Katrine Vellesen, 2012. "Smoking Bans, Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 7006, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7006
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Douglas Almond & Janet Currie & Valentina Duque, 2017. "Childhood Circumstances and Adult Outcomes: Act II," NBER Working Papers 23017, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Hope Corman & Dhaval M. Dave & Nancy E. Reichman, 2017. "Evolution of the Infant Health Production Function," NBER Working Papers 24131, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Rafaela M Nogueira De Carvalho, 2018. "Does The Unilateral Divorce Laws Cause Child Weight Gain?," Anais do XLIV Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 44th Brazilian Economics Meeting] 122, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    4. repec:pal:easeco:v:43:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1057_s41302-016-0010-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Kerry Anne McGeary & Dhaval M. Dave & Brandy J. Lipton & Timothy Roeper, 2017. "Impact of Comprehensive Smoking Bans on the Health of Infants and Children," NBER Working Papers 23995, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Roesel, Felix, 2017. "Do mergers of large local governments reduce expenditures? – Evidence from Germany using the synthetic control method," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 22-36.
    7. Jeffrey E. Harris & Ana Inés Balsa & Patricia Triunfo, 2014. "Tobacco Control Campaign in Uruguay: Impact on Smoking Cessation during Pregnancy," NBER Working Papers 19878, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Tamas Hajdu & Gabor Hajdu, 2017. "Smoking Ban and Health at Birth," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1706, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    9. Grönqvist, Erik & Norén, Anna & Sjögren, Anna & Svaleryd, Helena, 2016. "Sober mom, healthy baby? Effects of brief alcohol interventions in Swedish maternity care," Working Paper Series 2016:16, IFAU - Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy.
    10. Jeffrey E. Harris & Ana Balsa & Patricia Triunfo, 2014. "Campaña antitabaco en Uruguay:Impacto en la decisión de dejar de fumar durante el embarazo y en el peso al nacer," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0114, Department of Economics - dECON.
    11. Jeffrey E. Harris & Ana I. Balsa & Patricia Triunfo, 2014. "Campaña antitabaco en Uruguay: Impacto en la decisión de dejar de fumar durante el embarazo y en el peso al nacer," Documentos de Trabajo/Working Papers 1401, Facultad de Ciencias Empresariales y Economia. Universidad de Montevideo..
    12. Felix Rösel, 2016. "Gibt es Einspareffekte durch Kreisgebietsreformen? – Evidenz aus Ostdeutschland," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 69(22), pages 26-33, November.
    13. Eiji Yamamura & Yoshiro Tsutsui, 2016. "Effects of pregnancy and birth on smoking and drinking behaviors: a comparative study between men and women," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 16-26, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    very low birth weight; smoking bans; maternal smoking;

    JEL classification:

    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs

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