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Forecasting with Spatial Panel Data


  • Baltagi, Badi H.

    () (Syracuse University)

  • Bresson, Georges

    () (University of Paris 2)

  • Pirotte, Alain

    () (University of Paris 2)


This paper compares various forecasts using panel data with spatial error correlation. The true data generating process is assumed to be a simple error component regression model with spatial remainder disturbances of the autoregressive or moving average type. The best linear unbiased predictor is compared with other forecasts ignoring spatial correlation, or ignoring heterogeneity due to the individual effects, using Monte Carlo experiments. In addition, we check the performance of these forecasts under misspecification of the spatial error process, various spatial weight matrices, and heterogeneous rather than homogeneous panel data models.

Suggested Citation

  • Baltagi, Badi H. & Bresson, Georges & Pirotte, Alain, 2009. "Forecasting with Spatial Panel Data," IZA Discussion Papers 4242, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4242

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kelejian, Harry H & Prucha, Ingmar R, 1999. "A Generalized Moments Estimator for the Autoregressive Parameter in a Spatial Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 509-533, May.
    2. Bernard Fingleton, 2008. "A Generalized Method of Moments Estimator for a Spatial Panel Model with an Endogenous Spatial Lag and Spatial Moving Average Errors," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(1), pages 27-44.
    3. Hoogstrate, Andre J & Palm, Franz C & Pfann, Gerard A, 2000. "Pooling in Dynamic Panel-Data Models: An Application to Forecasting GDP Growth Rates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 18(3), pages 274-283, July.
    4. Georges Bresson & Badi H. Baltagi & Alain Pirotte, 2007. "Panel unit root tests and spatial dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 339-360.
    5. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
    6. Bernard Fingleton, 2008. "A generalized method of moments estimator for a spatial model with moving average errors, with application to real estate prices," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 35-57, February.
    7. Kajal Lahiri, 2005. "Analysis of Panel Data," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(4), pages 1093-1095.
    8. Badi H. Baltagi, 2008. "Forecasting with panel data," Journal of Forecasting, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 27(2), pages 153-173.
    9. Anselin, Luc & Moreno, Rosina, 2003. "Properties of tests for spatial error components," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 595-618, September.
    10. Baillie, R.T. & Baltagi, B.H., 1994. "Prediction from the Regression Model with one-way Error Components," Papers 9405, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
    11. Badi H. Baltagi & Georges Bresson & Alain Pirotte, 2004. "Tobin q: Forecast performance for hierarchical Bayes, shrinkage, heterogeneous and homogeneous panel data estimators," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 107-113, January.
    12. Baltagi, Badi H. & Griffin, James M., 1997. "Pooled estimators vs. their heterogeneous counterparts in the context of dynamic demand for gasoline," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 303-327, April.
    13. Badi Baltagi & Dong Li, 2006. "Prediction in the Panel Data Model with Spatial Correlation: the Case of Liquor," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(2), pages 175-185.
    14. Herbert Brücker & Boriss Siliverstovs, 2006. "On the estimation and forecasting of international migration: how relevant is heterogeneity across countries?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 735-754, September.
    15. Baltagi, Badi H. & Bresson, Georges & Pirotte, Alain, 2002. "Comparison of forecast performance for homogeneous, heterogeneous and shrinkage estimators: Some empirical evidence from US electricity and natural-gas consumption," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 375-382, August.
    16. Richard Schmalensee & Thomas M. Stoker & Ruth A. Judson, 1998. "World Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950-2050," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 15-27, February.
    17. Rapach, David E. & Wohar, Mark E., 2004. "Testing the monetary model of exchange rate determination: a closer look at panels," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 867-895, October.
    18. Badi H. Baltagi & James M. Griffin & Weiwen Xiong, 2000. "To Pool Or Not To Pool: Homogeneous Versus Hetergeneous Estimations Applied to Cigarette Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(1), pages 117-126, February.
    19. Kapoor, Mudit & Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2007. "Panel data models with spatially correlated error components," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 140(1), pages 97-130, September.
    20. Frees, Edward W. & Miller, Thomas W., 2004. "Sales forecasting using longitudinal data models," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 99-114.
    21. Taub, Allan J., 1979. "Prediction in the context of the variance-components model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 103-107, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Jean-Sauveur Ay & Raja Chakir & Julie Le Gallo, 2014. "The effects of scale, space and time on the predictive accuracy of land use models," Working Papers 2014/02, INRA, Economie Publique.
    2. Lee, Lung-fei & Yu, Jihai, 2015. "Estimation of fixed effects panel regression models with separable and nonseparable space–time filters," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 184(1), pages 174-192.
    3. Bernard Fingleton, 2014. "Forecasting with dynamic spatial panel data: practical implementation methods," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 3(4), pages 194-207.
    4. Millo, Giovanni, 2014. "Maximum likelihood estimation of spatially and serially correlated panels with random effects," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 914-933.
    5. Yu, Dalei & Bai, Peng & Ding, Chang, 2015. "Adjusted quasi-maximum likelihood estimator for mixed regressive, spatial autoregressive model and its small sample bias," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 87(C), pages 116-135.
    6. Baltagi, Badi H., 2013. "Panel Data Forecasting," Handbook of Economic Forecasting, Elsevier.
    7. Badi H. Baltagi & Bernard Fingleton & Alain Pirotte, 2014. "Estimating and Forecasting with a Dynamic Spatial Panel Data Model," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 76(1), pages 112-138, February.
    8. Ana Angulo & Jesús Mur & Javier Trivez, 2014. "Measure of the resilience to Spanish economic crisis: the role of specialization," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 3(4), pages 263-275.
    9. repec:eee:forpol:v:86:y:2018:i:c:p:67-75 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Roberto Patuelli & Matías Mayor, 2014. "Introduction," Economics and Business Letters, Oviedo University Press, vol. 3(4), pages 191-193.
    11. Hao, Yu & Zhang, Zong-Yong & Liao, Hua & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2015. "China’s farewell to coal: A forecast of coal consumption through 2020," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 444-455.
    12. Fingleton, Bernard & Palombi, Silvia, 2013. "Spatial panel data estimation, counterfactual predictions, and local economic resilience among British towns in the Victorian era," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 649-660.
    13. Du, Zaichao, 2014. "Testing for serial independence of panel errors," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 248-261.
    14. Hughes, Gordon & Chinowsky, Paul & Strzepek, Ken, 2010. "The costs of adaptation to climate change for water infrastructure in OECD countries," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 142-153, September.
    15. You, Jing, 2013. "China's challenge for decarbonized growth: Forecasts from energy demand models," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 652-668.
    16. Gong, Pu & Weng, Yingliang, 2016. "Value-at-Risk forecasts by a spatiotemporal model in Chinese stock market," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 441(C), pages 173-191.
    17. Baltagi, Badi H. & Pirotte, Alain, 2014. "Prediction in a spatial nested error components panel data model," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 407-414.
    18. Xueting Zhao & J. Burnett, 2014. "Forecasting province-level $${\text {CO}}_{2}$$ CO 2 emissions in China," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 171-183, October.

    More about this item


    BLUP; panel data; spatial dependence; forecasting; heterogeneity;

    JEL classification:

    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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