IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp10279.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Start-Up Capital and Women's Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Swaziland

Author

Listed:
  • Brixiova, Zuzana

    () (University of Economics Prague)

  • Kangoye, Thierry

    () (African Development Bank)

Abstract

This paper examines gender differences in entrepreneurial performance and their links with start-up capital utilizing a search model and empirical analysis of survey of entrepreneurs from Swaziland. The results show that entrepreneurs of both genders with higher start-up capital record better sales performance than those with smaller amounts of capital. For women entrepreneurs, formal finance sources of start-up capital are also associated with higher sales. However, as in other developing countries, women entrepreneurs in Swaziland have smaller start-up capital and are less likely to fund it from formal sources than men. Among women entrepreneurs, those with college education and confident in their skills tend to start their firms with higher amounts of capital. Professional support also matters, as women with such support are more likely to fund their start-up capital from the formal financial sector.

Suggested Citation

  • Brixiova, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry, 2016. "Start-Up Capital and Women's Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Swaziland," IZA Discussion Papers 10279, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10279
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp10279.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry, 2016. "Gender and constraints to entrepreneurship in Africa: New evidence from Swaziland," Journal of Business Venturing Insights, Elsevier, vol. 5(C), pages 1-8.
    2. Brixiova, Zuzana & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, 1997. "Private sector development in transition economies," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 241-279, June.
    3. Aterido, Reyes & Beck, Thorsten & Iacovone, Leonardo, 2013. "Access to Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is There a Gender Gap?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 102-120.
    4. Kanbur, S M Ravi, 1982. "Entrepreneurial Risk Taking, Inequality, and Public Policy: An Application of Inequality Decomposition Analysis to the General Equilibrium Effects of Progressive Taxation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(1), pages 1-21, February.
    5. Evelyn Derera & Pepukayi Chitakunye & Charles O’Neill, 2014. "The Impact of Gender on Start-up Capital: A Case of Women Entrepreneurs in South Africa," The Journal of Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India, vol. 23(1), pages 95-114, March.
    6. Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina & Brixiova, Zuzana & Ndikumana, Leonce, 2011. "Credit Constraints and Productive Entrepreneurship in Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 6193, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Kihlstrom, Richard E & Laffont, Jean-Jacques, 1979. "A General Equilibrium Entrepreneurial Theory of Firm Formation Based on Risk Aversion," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(4), pages 719-748, August.
    8. Thomas Gries & Wim Naudé, 2010. "Entrepreneurship and structural economic transformation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(1), pages 13-29, January.
    9. Sabarwal, Shwetlena & Terrell, Katherine, 2008. "Does Gender Matter for Firm Performance? Evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," IZA Discussion Papers 3758, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Beck, Thorsten & Cull, Robert, 2014. "SME finance in Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7018, The World Bank.
    11. Sandra Gottschalk & Michaela Niefert, 2013. "Gender differences in business success of German start-up firms," International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 18(1), pages 15-46.
    12. Mina Baliamoune-Lutz & Zuzana Brixiov?? & L??once Ndikumana, 2011. "Credit Constraints & Productive Entrepreneurship in Africa," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp1025, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    13. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
    14. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
    15. Thorsten Beck & Robert Cull, 2014. "Editor's choice SME Finance in Africa," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 23(5), pages 583-613.
    16. Julie A. Nelson, 2015. "Are Women Really More Risk-Averse Than Men? A Re-Analysis Of The Literature Using Expanded Methods," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(3), pages 566-585, July.
    17. Elizabeth Asiedu & Isaac Kalonda-Kanyama & Leonce Ndikumana & Akwasi Nti-Addae, 2013. "Access to Credit by Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Relevant Is Gender?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 293-297, May.
    18. Hazel Jean L. Malapit, 2012. "Are Women More Likely to be Credit Constrained? Evidence from Low-Income Urban Households in the Philippines," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 81-108, July.
    19. Mohammad Amin, 2010. "Gender and firm-size: Evidence from Africa," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(1), pages 663-668.
    20. Dalia S Hakura & Mumtaz Hussain & Monique Newiak & Vimal V Thakoor & Fan Yang, 2016. "Inequality, Gender Gaps and Economic Growth; Comparative Evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa," IMF Working Papers 16/111, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Brixiova, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry, 2016. "Gender Disparities in Employment and Earnings in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Swaziland," IZA Discussion Papers 10455, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    women's entrepreneurship; start-up capital; search model; multivariate analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • L53 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Enterprise Policy
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp10279. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Holger Hinte). General contact details of provider: http://www.iza.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.