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Gender and Constraints to Entrepreneurship in Africa: New Evidence from Swaziland

Author

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  • Brixiova, Zuzana

    () (University of Economics Prague)

  • Kangoye, Thierry

    () (African Development Bank)

Abstract

This paper contributes to closing a knowledge gap on gender, entrepreneurship and development by linking the entrepreneurial productivity to start-up capital and skills. The empirical analysis of a survey of entrepreneurs in Swaziland confirmed the importance of start-up capital for sales. Women entrepreneurs have smaller start-up capital and are less likely to fund it from the formal sector than their men counterparts, pointing to a possible room for policy interventions. Further, business training is positively associated with sales performance of men entrepreneurs, but has no effect on women. However, this does not call for abolishing training programs for women entrepreneurs. Instead their design and targeting should be revisited.

Suggested Citation

  • Brixiova, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry, 2015. "Gender and Constraints to Entrepreneurship in Africa: New Evidence from Swaziland," IZA Discussion Papers 9273, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp9273
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Brixiová, Zuzana & Ncube, Mthuli & Bicaba, Zorobabel, 2015. "Skills and Youth Entrepreneurship in Africa: Analysis with Evidence from Swaziland," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 11-26.
    2. Gine, Xavier & Mansuri, Ghazala, 2014. "Money or ideas ? a field experiment on constraints to entrepreneurship in rural Pakistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6959, The World Bank.
    3. Robert W. Fairlie & Dean Karlan & Jonathan Zinman, 2015. "Behind the GATE Experiment: Evidence on Effects of and Rationales for Subsidized Entrepreneurship Training," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 125-161, May.
    4. Zoltán Ács & Attila Varga, 2005. "Entrepreneurship, Agglomeration and Technological Change," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 323-334, February.
    5. Robert W. Fairlie & Dean Karlan & Jonathan Zinman, 2015. "Behind the GATE Experiment: Evidence on Effects of and Rationales for Subsidized Entrepreneurship Training," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 125-161, May.
    6. Aterido, Reyes & Beck, Thorsten & Iacovone, Leonardo, 2013. "Access to Finance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is There a Gender Gap?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 102-120.
    7. Justo, Rachida & DeTienne, Dawn R. & Sieger, Philipp, 2015. "Failure or voluntary exit? Reassessing the female underperformance hypothesis," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 775-792.
    8. Sabarwal, Shwetlena & Terrell, Katherine, 2008. "Does Gender Matter for Firm Performance? Evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," IZA Discussion Papers 3758, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Baumol, William J., 1996. "Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive, and destructive," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 3-22, January.
    10. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy, 2001. "Start-Up Capital: "Does Gender Matter?"," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(4), pages 329-345, June.
    11. Naudé, Wim, 2010. "Promoting Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: Policy Challenges," WIDER Working Papers UNU-WIDER Working Paper P, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    12. Elizabeth Asiedu & Isaac Kalonda-Kanyama & Leonce Ndikumana & Akwasi Nti-Addae, 2013. "Access to Credit by Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Relevant Is Gender?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(3), pages 293-297, May.
    13. Mohammad Amin, 2010. "Gender and firm-size: Evidence from Africa," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(1), pages 663-668.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Brixiova, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry, 2016. "Gender Disparities in Employment and Earnings in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Swaziland," IZA Discussion Papers 10455, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad & Yoshino, Naoyuki & Fukuda, Lisa, 2019. "Gender and Corporate Success: An Empirical Analysis of Gender-Based Corporate Performance on a Sample of Asian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises," ADBI Working Papers 937, Asian Development Bank Institute.
    3. Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry & Said, Mona, 2020. "Training, human capital, and gender gaps in entrepreneurial performance," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 367-380.
    4. Brixiova, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry, 2016. "Start-Up Capital and Women's Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Swaziland," IZA Discussion Papers 10279, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Brixiová, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry & Tregenna, Fiona, 2020. "Enterprising women in Southern Africa: When does land ownership matter?," GLO Discussion Paper Series 457, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    6. Brixiova, Zuzana & Kangoye, Thierry, 2019. "Networks, Start-Up Capital and Women's Entrepreneurial Performance in Africa: Evidence from Eswatini," IZA Discussion Papers 12198, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Svetlana Martynova & Polina Sazonova, 2018. "Women's Entrepreneurship in the Innovative Regions of Russia in the Mirror of Qualitative Sociological Research," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4), pages 843-858.
    8. Paola Demartini, 2018. "Innovative Female-Led Startups. Do Women in Business Underperform?," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(4), pages 1-15, November.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    skills; start-up capital; gender and entrepreneurship; training; multivariate analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • L53 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Enterprise Policy
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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