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Monetary Policy, Inflation and the Level of Economic Activity in Brasil after the Real Plan: Stylized Facts from SVAR Models

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  • Brisne J. V. Céspedes
  • Elcyon C. R. Lima
  • Alexis Maka

Abstract

This article investigates the stochastic and dynamic relationship of a group of Brazilian macroeconomic variables (price and industrial production indexes, nominal exchange rate, short and medium-run nominal interest rates) for the period after the Real Plan (1996-2004). We adopt, as has become usual in the literature, several SVAR (structural VAR) models to uncover stylized facts for the short-run impacts of the identified exogenous sources of fluctuations of this selected set of variables. A distinctive feature of this article is the employment of Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG) to obtain the contemporaneous causal order of the variables used to identify the SVAR models. Another distinguishing characteristic is the careful attention paid to monetary policy developments after the Real Plan when splitting our sample in two subsamples (1996/07-1998/08 and 1999/03-2004/12). The main results are: a) in response to a positive short run interest rate innovation, during the 1999-2004 subperiod, the output and the price level decrease—however, the output response is faster and the price level responds with a lag of near four months; b) for the 1996-1998 subperiod, the most likely effect of a positive short run interest rate innovation is the reduction of the price level (also with a four months lag), even though there is a large uncertainty in this response, and the reduction of output; c)short run interest rate innovations are one of the most important sources of temporary fluctuations in the level of economic activity for both subsamples; and d) exogenous shocks to the exchange rate and to the medium term interest rate are for the 1999-2004 period, the most important sources of inflation rate fluctuation. Este artigo investiga as relações estocásticas e dinâmicas de um grupo de variáveis macroeconômicas brasileiras (índices de preços, produção industrial, taxa de câmbio nominal, taxas de juros de curto e médio prazo, e M1) para o período após o Plano Real (1996-2004). Adota, como é usual na literatura, vários modelos SVARs (VAR estruturais) para determinar os fatos estilizados relativos aos impactos de curto prazo das fontes exógenas de flutuação identificadas para esse grupo de variáveis. O artigo inova ao empregar Grafos Acíclicos Direcionados (DAG) na obtenção das relações causais contemporâneas entre as variáveis e ao considerar que as alterações da política monetária, ocorridas após o Plano Real, tornam essencial a divisão da nossa amostra em dois subperíodos (1996/07-1998/08 e 1999/03-2004/12). Os resultados principais são: a) em resposta a uma inovação positiva na taxa de juros de curto prazo (Selic), durante o subperíodo 1999-2004, a produção e o nível de preços caem — porém, a resposta da produção é mais rápida que a do nível de preços, que só acontece com uma defasagem de aproximadamente quatro meses; b) para o período 1996-1998, o efeito mais provável de uma inovação positiva na taxa de juros de curto prazo é a redução do nível de preços também com uma defasagem de quatro meses, embora haja uma grande incerteza em relação a essa resposta e da produção; c) as inovações na taxa de juros de curto prazo (Selic) estão entre as fontes mais importantes da flutuação do nível de atividade econômica em ambos os subperíodos; e d) os choques exógenos na taxa de câmbio e na taxa de juros de médio prazo (Swap Pré x CDI) são, para o período 1999-2004, as fontes mais importantes da flutuação da taxa de inflação.

Suggested Citation

  • Brisne J. V. Céspedes & Elcyon C. R. Lima & Alexis Maka, 2015. "Monetary Policy, Inflation and the Level of Economic Activity in Brasil after the Real Plan: Stylized Facts from SVAR Models," Discussion Papers 0149, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
  • Handle: RePEc:ipe:ipetds:0149
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    Cited by:

    1. Tomas Havranek & Marek Rusnak, 2013. "Transmission Lags of Monetary Policy: A Meta-Analysis," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(4), pages 39-76, December.
    2. Minella, André & Souza-Sobrinho, Nelson F., 2013. "Monetary policy channels in Brazil through the lens of a semi-structural model," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 405-419.
    3. Brisne J. V. Céspedes & Elcyon C. R. Lima & Alexis Maka & Mário J. C. Mendonça, 2005. "Measuring Monetary Policy Stance in Brazil," Discussion Papers 1128, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
    4. Fernando José Pérez Forero, 2015. "Comparing the Transmission of Monetary Policy Shocks in Latin America: A Hierachical Panel VAR," Premio de Banca Central Rodrigo Gómez / Central Banking Award "Rodrigo Gómez", Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, number prg2015eng, July-Dece.
    5. Cardoso de Mendonça, Mário Jorge, 2013. "O Crédito Imobiliário no Brasil e sua Relação com a Política Monetária," Revista Brasileira de Economia - RBE, FGV EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil), vol. 67(4), November.
    6. Elcyon C. R. Lima & Alexis Maka & Mário Mendonça, 2007. "Monetary Policy Regimes in Brazil," Discussion Papers 1285, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
    7. Glocker, Christian & Towbin, Pascal, 2015. "Reserve requirements as a macroprudential instrument – Empirical evidence from Brazil," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 158-176.
    8. Marco A. F. H. Cavalcanti & Luciano Vereda, 2011. "Propriedades Dinâmicas de Um Modelo DSGE Com Parametrizações Alternativas Para o Brasil," Discussion Papers 1588, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada - IPEA.
    9. repec:fgv:epgrbe:v:67:n:4:a:4 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Igor Ézio Maciel Silva & Nelson Leitão Paes & Jocildo Fernandes Bezerra, 2016. "Evidences Of Incomplete Interest Rate Pass-Through, Directed Credit And Cost Channel Of Monetary Policy In Brazil," Anais do XLIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 43rd Brazilian Economics Meeting] 036, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    11. repec:sbe:breart:v:31:y:2011:i:1:a:3410 is not listed on IDEAS

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