IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Explaining Rising Income Inequality in Germany, 1991-2010

  • Kai Daniel Schmid
  • Ulrike Stein

In Germany, inequality of net equivalized income increased noticeably in the first half of the new millennium. We aim to identify the main drivers of this rise in income inequality since the early 1990s. We provide a broad overview of the circumstances under which inequality evolved, i.e. which changes in the German economy are most likely to provide an explanation for changes in income concentration. To explain the development of the distribution of net equivalized income we analyze changes in the distribution of market income as well as shifts in the effectiveness of public redistribution mechanisms. We find that cyclical and structural changes in the labor market, the increasing relevance of capital income as well as the decreasing effectiveness of the public mechanisms of income redistribution are the main explanatory factors for the development of income inequality. In addition to this, we discuss several issues that are of high relevance for the distribution of economic resources but are not directly covered in the analysis of net equivalized income. Most significantly, the design of the tax and social security contributions burden as well as the rising relevance of value-added taxes have exhibited negative redistributive effects for low income households.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.boeckler.de/pdf/p_imk_study_32_2013.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute in its series IMK Studies with number 32-2013.

as
in new window

Length: 47 pages
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:imk:studie:32-2013
Contact details of provider: Postal: Hans-Böckler-Straße 39, 40476 Düsseldorf
Phone: +49 211 7778 234
Fax: +49 211 7778 4234
Web page: http://www.imk-boeckler.deEmail:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Gert G. Wagner & Joachim R. Frick & Jürgen Schupp, 2007. "The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) – Scope, Evolution and Enhancements," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 127(1), pages 139-169.
  2. Nicola Fuchs-Schuendeln & Dirk Krueger & Mathias Sommer, 2010. "Inequality Trends for Germany in the Last Two Decades: A Tale of Two Countries," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 13(1), pages 103-132, January.
  3. Johannes Gernandt & Friedhelm Pfeiffer, 2007. "Rising Wage Inequality in Germany," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 227(4), pages 358-380, August.
  4. Burda, Michael C. & Kvasnicka, Michael, 2004. "Zeitarbeit in Deutschland: Trends und Perspektiven," Papers 2004,36, Humboldt-Universität Berlin, Center for Applied Statistics and Economics (CASE).
  5. Krebs, tom & Krishna, Pravin & Maloney, William, 2005. "Trade policy, income risk, and welfare," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3622, The World Bank.
  6. Deborah Winkler, William Milberg, 2009. "WP 2009-12 Errors from the “Proportionality Assumption” in the Measurement of Offshoring: Application to German Labor Demand," SCEPA working paper series. SCEPA's main areas of research are macroeconomic policy, inequality and poverty, and globalization. 2009-12, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
  7. Riphahn, Regina T. & Schnitzlein, Daniel D., 2011. "Wage Mobility in East and West Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 6246, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Anna Fräßdorf & Markus M. Grabka & Johannes Schwarze, 2008. "The Impact of Household Capital Income on Income Inequality: A Factor Decomposition Analysis for Great Britain, Germany and the USA," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 104, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  9. Christian Dustmann & Johannes Ludsteck & Uta Schönberg, 2009. "Revisiting the German Wage Structure," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 124(2), pages 843-881, May.
  10. Marin, Dalia, 2004. "A Nation of Poets and Thinkers - Less so with Eastern Enlargement? Austria and Germany," CEPR Discussion Papers 4358, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  11. Geishecker, Ingo & Görg, Holger, 2007. "Winners and losers: A Micro-level Analysis of International Outsourcing and Wages," CEPR Discussion Papers 6484, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Stefan Bach & Giacomo Corneo & Viktor Steiner, 2009. "From Bottom To Top: The Entire Income Distribution In Germany, 1992-2003," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 55(2), pages 303-330, 06.
  13. Martin Biewen & Andos Juhasz, 2012. "Understanding Rising Income Inequality in Germany, 1999/2000–2005/2006," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 58(4), pages 622-647, December.
  14. David Card & Jörg Heining & Patrick Kline, 2013. "Workplace Heterogeneity and the Rise of West German Wage Inequality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 128(3), pages 967-1015.
  15. Katz, Lawrence F. & Autor, David H., 1999. "Changes in the wage structure and earnings inequality," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 26, pages 1463-1555 Elsevier.
  16. Sascha O. Becker & Karolina Ekholm & Marc-Andreas Muendler, 2009. "Offshoring and the Onshore Composition of Tasks and Skills," IAW Discussion Papers 55, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  17. Martin Adler & Kai Daniel Schmid, 2012. "Factor Shares and Income Inequality - Empirical Evidence from Germany 2002-2008," IAW Discussion Papers 82, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
  18. Antonczyk, Dirk & Fitzenberger, Bernd & Sommerfeld, Katrin, 2010. "Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 835-847, October.
  19. Daniel Horgos, 2007. "Labor Market Effects of International Outsourcing: How Measurement Matters," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 58, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  20. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas, 1999. "Exchange Rates and Jobs: What Do We Learn from Job Flows?," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1998, volume 13, pages 153-222 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  21. Martin Biewen & Andos Juhasz, 2011. "Can Employment Changes Explain Rising Income Inequality in Germany?," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 131(2), pages 349-357.
  22. Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2006. "Technical Change, Job Tasks, and Rising Educational Demands: Looking outside the Wage Structure," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(2), pages 235-270, April.
  23. Daniel Horgos, 2009. "International Outsourcing and Wage Rigidity: A Formal Approach and First Empirical Evidence," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 166, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  24. Markus M. Grabka & Jan Goebel & Jürgen Schupp, 2012. "Höhepunkt der Einkommensungleichheit in Deutschland überschritten?," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 79(43), pages 3-15.
  25. Geishecker, Ingo, 2008. "The impact of international outsourcing on individual employment security: A micro-level analysis," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 291-314, June.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:imk:studie:32-2013. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sabine Nemitz)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.