Better Luck Next Time: Learning through Retaking
This paper provides some evidence that repeat taking of competitive exams may reduce the impact of background disadvantages on educational outcomes. Using administra- tive data on the university entrance exam in Turkey, the paper estimates cumulative learning between the first and the nth attempt while controlling for selection into re- taking in terms of observed and unobserved characteristics. Large learning gains mea- sured in terms of improvements in the exam scores are found, especially among less advantaged students.
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