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Network and Border Effects: Where Do Foreign Multinationals Locate in Germany?

This study assesses the determinants of location choices of foreign multinational firms at the level of German federal states. Adjacency and existing firm networks are assumed to influence the investors’ profits in a given location by overcoming informational disadvantages when entering the new market. A conditional and a nested logit model resemble the structure of the location choice process of individual investors well. By using affiliate-level data between 1997 and 2005, the results confirm that firms react positively to local demand, a common border and existing firm networks, while unit labour costs exhibit the expected negative impact. In the sectoral estimations, it is shown that these effects vary in their relevance among manufacturing and service affiliates, and between upstream and downstream activities.

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Paper provided by Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW) in its series IAW Discussion Papers with number 47.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iaw:iawdip:47
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  1. Mark J. Melitz, 2002. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," NBER Working Papers 8881, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Alfons J. Weichenrieder & Jack Mintz, 2008. "What determines the use of holding companies and ownership chains?," Working Papers 0803, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
  3. Sebastian Krautheim, 2013. "Export-supporting FDI," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 46(4), pages 1571-1605, November.
  4. Stephen Redding & Anthony J. Venables, 2001. "Economic Geography and International Inequality," CEP Discussion Papers dp0495, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  5. Harald Uhlig, 2008. "The Slow Decline of East Germany," NBER Working Papers 14553, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Roberto Basile, 2002. "Acquisition versus greenfield investment: the location of foreign manufacturers in Italy," ISAE Working Papers 27, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
  7. Fabrice Defever, 2006. "Functional fragmentation and the location of multinational firms in the enlarged Europe," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla06052, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  8. Gordon H. Hanson & Raymond J. Mataloni, Jr. & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2001. "Expansion Strategies of U.S. Multinational Firms," NBER Working Papers 8433, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Benjamin Nefussi & Cyrille Schwellnus, 2010. "Does FDI in manufacturing cause FDI in business services? Evidence from French firm-level data," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 43(1), pages 180-203, February.
  10. Head, Keith & Ries, John & Swenson, Deborah, 1995. "Agglomeration benefits and location choice: Evidence from Japanese manufacturing investments in the United States," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(3-4), pages 223-247, May.
  11. Amiti, Mary & Javorcik, Beata Smarzynska, 2005. "Trade costs and location of foreign firms in China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3564, The World Bank.
  12. Claudia M. Buch & Farid Toubal, 2007. "Openness and Growth: The Long Shadow of the Berlin Wall," IAW Discussion Papers 31, Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW).
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  14. Jürgen Bitzer & Holger Görg, 2009. "Foreign Direct Investment, Competition and Industry Performance," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(2), pages 221-233, 02.
  15. Tomohiko Inui & Toshiyuki Matsuura & Sandra Poncet, 2008. "The Location of Japanese MNC Affiliates: Agglomeration, Spillovers and Firm Heterogeneity," Working Papers 2008-24, CEPII research center.
  16. Roberto Basile & Davide Castellani & Antonello Zanfei, 2007. "Location choices of multinational firms in Europe: the role of EU cohesion policy," Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia, Finanza e Statistica 32/2007, Università di Perugia, Dipartimento Economia.
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  18. Krugman, Paul, 1991. "Increasing Returns and Economic Geography," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(3), pages 483-99, June.
  19. repec:cup:cbooks:9780521766555 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Head, C. Keith & Ries, John C. & Swenson, Deborah L., 1999. "Attracting foreign manufacturing: Investment promotion and agglomeration," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 197-218, March.
  21. Crozet, Matthieu & Mayer, Thierry & Mucchielli, Jean-Louis, 2004. "How do firms agglomerate? A study of FDI in France," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 27-54, January.
  22. Guimaraes, Paulo & Figueiredo, Octavio & Woodward, Douglas, 2000. "Agglomeration and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in Portugal," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 115-135, January.
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  24. Bellak, Christian & Leibrecht, Markus & Riedl, Aleksandra, 2008. "Labour costs and FDI flows into Central and Eastern European Countries: A survey of the literature and empirical evidence," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 17-37, March.
  25. Elhanan Helpman & Marc J. Melitz & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2004. "Export Versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 300-316, March.
  26. Salvador Barrios & Holger Görg & Eric Strobl, 2006. "Multinationals' Location Choice, Agglomeration Economies, and Public Incentives," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 29(1), pages 81-107, January.
  27. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry, 2002. "Market Potential and the Location of Japanese Investment in the European Union," CEPR Discussion Papers 3455, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  28. Kenneth Train, 2003. "Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation," Online economics textbooks, SUNY-Oswego, Department of Economics, number emetr2, March.
  29. Buch, Claudia M. & Kleinert, Jorn & Toubal, Farid, 2006. "Where enterprises lead, people follow? Links between migration and FDI in Germany," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(8), pages 2017-2036, November.
  30. Fujita, Masahisa & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1996. "Economics of Agglomeration," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 339-378, December.
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