What determines the use of holding companies and ownership chains?
The paper investigates the role of holding companies and conduit entities in German inbound and outbound FDI. It identifies the relevant conduit countries that act as stepping stones. Several tax and non-tax factors for the set-up of indirect structures are empirically identified. Withholding taxes, credit systems in capital exporting countries and the possibility of group consolidation are shown to be empirically important for the design of ownership chains in foreign direct investment.
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- Ramb, Fred & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2005.
"Taxes and the financial structure of German inward FDI,"
Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies
2005,05, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Fred Ramb & Alfons J. Weichenrieder, 2005. "Taxes and the Financial Structure of German Inward FDI," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 141(4), pages 670-692, December.
- Fred Ramb & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2004. "Taxes and the Financial Structure of German Inward FDI," CESifo Working Paper Series 1355, CESifo Group Munich.
- Ramb, Fred & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2005. "Taxes and the Financial Structure of German Inward FDI," Kiel Working Papers 1252, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
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- Jack Mintz & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2005. "Taxation and the Financial Structure of German Outbound FDI," CESifo Working Paper Series 1612, CESifo Group Munich.
- Jack Mintz, 2004.
"Conduit Entities: Implications of Indirect Tax-Efficient Financing Structures for Real Investment,"
International Tax and Public Finance,
Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 11(4), pages 419-434, 08.
- Jack M. Mintz, 2003. "Conduit Entities: Implications of Indirect Tax-Efficient Financing Structures for Real Investment," International Tax Program Papers 0410, International Tax Program, Institute for International Business, Joseph L. Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto, revised Sep 2004.
- Leechor, Chad & Mintz, Jack, 1993. "On the taxation of multinational corporate investment when the deferral method is used by the capital exporting country," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(1), pages 75-96, May.
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NBER Working Papers
3519, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Thomas A. Gresik, 2001. "The Taxing Task of Taxing Transnationals," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 800-838, September.
- Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 1998. "Foreign profits and domestic investment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 451-463, September.
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