What determines the use of holding companies and ownership chains?
The paper investigates the role of holding companies and conduit entities in German inbound and outbound FDI. It identifies the relevant conduit countries that act as stepping stones. Several tax and non-tax factors for the set-up of indirect structures are empirically identified. Withholding taxes, credit systems in capital exporting countries and the possibility of group consolidation are shown to be empirically important for the design of ownership chains in foreign direct investment.
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- Jack Mintz, 2004.
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- Ramb, Fred & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2005.
"Taxes and the financial structure of German inward FDI,"
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2005,05, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
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- Fred Ramb & Alfons Weichenrieder, 2004. "Taxes and the Financial Structure of German Inward FDI," CESifo Working Paper Series 1355, CESifo Group Munich.
- Ramb, Fred & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2005. "Taxes and the Financial Structure of German Inward FDI," Kiel Working Papers 1252, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Fred Ramb & Alfons J. Weichenrieder, 2005. "Taxes and the Financial Structure of German Inward FDI," Kiel Working Papers 1252, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
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